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Classical Persia Influence of the River Valley Civilizations on Classical Civilizations The economic and political systems, writing, technology, language, etc. of the classical civilizations were built upon the foundations laid down earlier by the river valley civilizations. “Classical” Civilization • During the Classical Era, civilization spread beyond the river valleys, some establishing large empires. • These civilizations developed institutions, systems of thought and cultural styles that still influence the world today. • Art, music, and literature set standards against which later works would be judged. • Classical: of the highest class or rank The Persian Empire (2000 B.C.-100B.C.) Medes and Persians resided in the Middle East on the Iranian Plateau, between the Caspian Sea. Cyrus the Great unified the Medes and the Persians. Also known as the Achaemenid Empire The Persian Empire (2000 B.C.-100B.C.) Darius the Great built a network of public roads (over 1,500 miles), introduced a uniform of set weights and measure, and established several capital The Persian Empire (2000 B.C.-100B.C.) Created one of the largest empire from Turkey to Libya Able to control empire by dividing into provinces and collecting tribute The provinces benefited from extensive trade throughout the empire Zoroastrianism The Persian Empire (2000 B.C.-100B.C.) Advanced postal system, roads, single currency, and decentralized government Zoroastrianism: primary religion – monotheistic Fell to Alexander the Great Zoroastrianism Prophet: Zoroaster around 600B.C. Ahura Mazda-god of truth and light battles Ahriman-god of evil and darkness Man must choose which side to follow Sacred Book/collection is called the Avesta Concept of heaven and hell is developed End of world battle between good & evil Alexander the Great-end in Persia Still practiced today manly in India Geography of Greece Ancient Greece (2000B.C.300B.C.) Civilization gradually spread from Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia to other places in the Mediterranean Greece consists of a large mountainous peninsula, islands of the Aegean Sea, and the coast of present day Turkey Geographic influences on Culture Geography: a land poor in natural resources and surrounded by the Aegean Sea Influence: Greeks became a seafaring people and established colonies throughout the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to obtain needed resources such and timber, metals, farmland Through trade the Greeks were exposed to the Phoenician alphabet Geographic influences on Culture Geography: Greece was made up of many islands, had no major river system, had poor soil, and was divided by rocky, mountainous terrain Influence: the Greeks grew mostly vine products such as grapes and olives and made up an important part of their diet Transportation and communication were difficult Were unable to unite under a singe government and the city-states remained independent Geographic influences on Culture Geography: Greece had a mild climate Influence: Greeks spent much of the time outdoors, meeting to discuss public issues and took an active part in civic and political life Minoan Civilization Flourished on the island of Crete from 2000B.C. – 1400B.C. Minoan Civilization Developed own form of writing Minoan Civilization Used copper and bronze and were skilled shipbuilders Minoan Civilization Athleticism was stressed in contests such as bullleaping Minoan Civilization Mysteriously collapsed in 1400B.C. Mycenaean (aka Greeks) will adopt/adapt Sea trading, writing system, Minoan vase design Greek City-States City-States (Greek: Polis) Due to geography much of the population was cut off from one another, so politically independent citystates developed. City-States (Greek: Polis) Each city-state had its own form of government and system of laws City-States (Greek: Polis) The two most famous city-states are Athens and Sparta. There were many ways to govern the city-states. Forms of Government: Monarchy The state is ruled by a king. It is hereditary. Some rulers claim divine right. Practiced in the city-state of Mycenae (1450 BCE) Forms of Government: Aristocracy The state is ruled by nobility. It is hereditary and based on land ownership. Social status and wealth support rulers’ authority. Practiced in Athens (594 BCE) Forms of Government: Oligarchy The state is ruled by a small group of citizens. It is based on wealth. The ruling group controls the military. Practiced in Sparta (800-600 BCE). Forms of Government: Direct Democracy The state is rule by its citizens. The rule is based on citizenship. Majority rule decides vote. Practiced in Athens Persian Wars Were between the Greeks (Athens, Sparta, and other city-states versus the Persians ( Darrius and then his son Xerxes) Persian Wars Battle of Marathon The Persian cross the Aegean Sea and land on a plain called Marathon with 25,000 men. 10,000 Athenians are waiting The Persian were defeated Persian Wars Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis Thermopylae - the Persians (Xerxes) come to a mountain pass and 300 Spartans blocked the way. The Persians get around the mountain pass and take out the Spartans Salamis – Xerxes sent warships to block the channel, but their ships were to big. The Athenians in their smaller ships destroy over 1/3 of the Persian ship. Consequences of Persian Wars The Persian were defeated Athens became the leader of the Delian League, an alliance of 140 city-states. Athens will enter the golden age Women Women were regarded as inferior and excluded from public life. Women took care of the home and were subject to their husbands will. Sparta women enjoyed more freedoms than others. They were given an education and endured physical training. Golden Age of Athens Athenian and American Democracy Venn Diagram Athenian Democracy Citizens: male; 18 years old; born of citizen parents Laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Leader chosen by lot Executive branch composed of a council of 500 men Juries varied in size No attorneys; no appeals, one-day trials Athenian and American Democracy Venn Diagram U. S. Democracy Citizens: Born in United States or completed citizenship process Representatives elected to propose and vote on laws Elected president Executive branch made up of elected and appointed officials Juries composed of 12 jurors Defendants and plaintiff’s have attorneys; long appeals process Athenian and American Democracy Venn Diagram Both Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of government Legislative branch passes laws Executive branch carries out laws Judicial branch conducts trials with paid jurors Golden Age of Athens Greeks enjoyed great prosperity and made significant achievements in art, literature, and philosophy. Athens developed the first known democratic government- a system in which citizens take part in governing. Golden Age of Athens Philosophers Athenians believed human reason was powerful enough to understand the world and solve problems. Greeks believed in dignity of the individual. Through the use of reason, they believed humans could understand how the world worked. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were noted Greek philosophers who questioned nature and life. Golden Age of Athens Greek Art Greek values of order, balance, and proportion became the standard of what is called classical art. Sculptors attempted to create figures that were graceful, strong and perfectly formed, and to capture the grace of the idealized human body in motion. Golden Age of Athens Architecture Athens created statues and buildings of perfect, balanced proportions. Parthenon - temple to goddess Athena. Golden Age of Athens Science and Mathematics Archimedes: value of pi (π), contributions to geometry, law of the lever, pulleys & other devices Eratosthenes: circumference of the earth; device for discovering prime numbers Golden Age of Athens Drama Had this first known comedies and tragedies. Greeks watched these plays in giant open-air amphitheaters. Golden Age of Athens Historical Writings Herodotus and Thucydides told the story of the past.