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Transcript
NFSC 125, Human Nutrition
K. Silliman, Spring 2004
DIETARY PROJECT (75 points)
Objectives:
 To strengthen your knowledge of the nutrient value of foods and the units in which each nutrient
is expressed.

To become acquainted with a nutrient analysis software program.

To compare your current diet with the dietary guidelines, the food guide pyramid, and the DRIs
and to make suggestions for improvement of your diet.
Procedure:
I.
Record of food intake (pages 5-7)
A.
Keep a record of everything you eat and drink during three 24-hour periods. Record each
day’s food intake on a separate sheet. Your dietary summary does not need to be taken
over three consecutive days, but one of the three days must be a weekend day since food
intake differs on weekdays. Include snacks and other foods eaten between meals. It is
best to keep the list with you and record food as they are eaten, rather than relying on your
memory at the end of the day. Also, try to choose days that best reflect your normal
intake.
B.
Describe the food as completely as possible.
For Beverages: List the type of milk, such as whole, reduced fat (2% or 1%), and non-fat
milk, evaporated, chocolate, or reconstituted dry. Indicate whether fruit juice is fresh,
frozen or canned. Indicate other types of beverages such as fruit drink, Kool-aid, etc.
For Fruits: Indicate whether fresh, frozen, dried or canned. If whole, record as number
eaten and size with approximate measurement (e.g. 1 apple, 3” diameter). Indicate if
processed in water, light syrup, or heavy syrup.
For Vegetables: Indicate fresh, frozen, canned, or dried.
For Cereals: Record cooked cereals/grains as portions as eaten (i.e. after cooking). Be
sure to record any added ingredients such as margarine, sugar, etc.
For Breads: Indicate whether whole-wheat, rye, etc. Measure and record number and
size of portion (e.g. biscuit 2” across, 1” thick). If bread or bagel is eaten dry, please
specify. Sandwiches: List all ingredients separately.
For Meats and Cheese: Record amounts in ounces. Record measurements only as the
cooked, edible part. Indicate method of cooking: fried, baked, etc.
Remember to include butter or margarine used on vegetables, dressing on salad, sugar
added to coffee, catsup on fries, and all those “hidden” foods.
C.
Record the amount of each item eaten by listing container size (12 oz can), the
appropriate common household measure (1/2 cup, 1 TBS.), the count (2 slices of bread),
or by specifying the weight (3 oz of hamburger meat). Food portions are often
underestimated, so it is important to record these amounts as accurately as possible.
D.
Do not list vitamin or mineral supplements or water on food record. You will discuss
this information later in your paper.
E.
You are not being judged on the quality of your diet, so it is to your benefit to be honest
about recording what you eat.
1
II.
III.
Food Behavior (pages 5-7)
Knowledge of food behavior patterns has helped many people improve their eating habits. You
will need to record five types of information each time you eat: where the food was eaten, time of
day, what you were doing, how you felt, and whom you were with.
A.
Give a specific place where the food was eaten, for example; kitchen, living room,
bedroom, car, etc.
B.
Record the time the food was eaten.
C.
Describe what you were doing when you ate, for example; studying, driving, watching
TV, just eating, etc.
D.
Describe your emotional state, for example; tired, hungry, bored, happy, depressed, etc.
E.
Record whom you were with, for example; spouse, friend, family, alone, etc.
Computer Instructions for the Diet Analysis Program
The program is located on the laptop computers in Tehama 118. The room is only available
during open computer lab hours (to be announced in class). If you are unable to attend one of the
open lab times, you may make an appointment with Lorna Abbott (898-4715).
A.
General Instructions for PC versions
1.
Have your food record and textbook with you when you are at the computer for
this project. A high-density disk is highly recommended but not required if you
can complete the project within the allotted time.
2.
Diet projects are not to be saved on the hard drive of the laptops.
3.
Follow the instructions on the attached pages.
4.
Before leaving the workstation please check to make sure that you have three
printed reports (for a total of at least 9 pages). You will need:
DAY ONE SPREADSHEET (3 pages)
DAY TWO SPREADSHEET (3 pages)
DAY THREE SPREADSHEET (3 pages)
5.
Program notes that may be helpful:
* After double clicking on the program icon, the program is available to
work in. Select “FILE” from the main menu and scroll to “NEW.”
* Student names will not print on all spreadsheet documents from the printer
therefore all papers should be gathered from the printer as soon as
possible.
* A quick double check in the calorie column may pinpoint obvious errors.
Example: 8 oz orange juice: 400 calories-- was the juice reconstituted?
* Corrections in the foodlist can be made. First you must select the window
for the given day (Foodlist: Day ...). Highlight the item to be adjusted.
Change the serving amount or food item as needed.
* The foodlist holds a maximum of 30 items per day. If more than 30 foods
are on your daily list you may need to combine like items.
KEEP ALL OF YOUR PRINTOUTS AND SUBMIT THE SPREADSHEETS
SHOWING THE FOODS/BEVERAGES YOU CONSUMED FROM DAY 1,2,
AND 3 ALONG WITH THE TOTAL NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF THE
FOODS/BEVERAGES. TURN THE SPREADSHEETS IN WITH YOUR
2
ASSIGNMENT. YOU WILL HAVE POINTS DEDUCTED IF THESE ARE
NOT TURNED IN.
B.
IV.
IBM and Compatible Instructions: Diet Analysis Plus
1.
Opening Program
a.
Under the "START" menu scroll to “PROGRAMS” / “DIET ANALYSIS
PLUS.”
b.
The window "Welcome o Diet Analysis Plus" appears. Select “NEW.”
2.
Enter Personal Information:
a.
Type your name and other information as required.
b.
Press the “ENTER” key.
c.
The second window "Student Information" appears. You should leave
these items blank and go directly to the "OK" button.
3.
Foodlist Entry:
a.
Select box “1” (or the number corresponding to the day required) on top of
the screen for the foodlist.
b.
Type the food name and press “ENTER.”
- Select the specific item in the window using the arrow keys (or mouse).
Once highlighted press the enter button or double click on the appropriate
food item.
c.
Enter the amount of the food item by typing the quantity in the servings
box.
-If the amount is a fraction number (i.e. 1/2) it should be entered as a
decimal (0.5).
-The amount should correspond to the units available (i.e. cheese listed as
ounce rather than cup)
d.
Press the "ENTER" key on the keyboard. The enter key is necessary.
e.
Select the correct unit (i.e. Tablespoon, Teaspoon, Cup, Ounce, Fluid
Ounce, etc.) by highlighting the unit. Press "ENTER."
f.
Continue until all food items are on the list for the entire day.
3.
Analysis Reports:
a.
From the main menu, select "FOODLIST" then "ANALYSIS/REPORTS."
b.
Print by selecting the printer icon on the toolbar or "FILE" to "PRINT" and
then "OK."
4.
Multiple Days:
a.
Select box "2" (or the next number corresponding to the next day) from the
top of the screen for next foodlist.
b.
Continue from step “3.”
Summary of nutrient intake (pages 8-11)
A.
From the information (spreadsheets) you obtain from the Diet Analysis program, record
the totals for each of the three days in the appropriate spaces (pages 8-10). Calculate your
average daily nutrient intake from your three-day intake and record in the spaces
provided. Record the DRIs for your age and sex in the spaces provided (pg 9). DO NOT
USE THE PERSONALIZED VALUES PROVIDED BY THE DIET ANALYSIS
3
PROGRAM. In the final space provided (pg 9), record the EAR or AI for each nutrient
for your age and sex (see page 12).
B.
V.
4
Calculate your average percent of kcals from protein, carbohydrate, fat (plus saturated,
polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated), and alcohol (page 10). For each of the three days
add up the total number of servings from each of the 6 food groups (page 11 and use page
38-39 of the text and/or the handout provided in the reader). Calculate an average for the
three days.
Evaluation of Diet and Recommendations for Improvement
WRITE A SHORT PAPER (not more than 3 pages) ANSWERING AND CONSIDERING
THE FOLLOWING.
A.
Give a brief description of yourself (age, height, weight, occupation, etc.). What is your
BMI (see pages 251-252 of text)? Are you happy with your present weight? If not, how
much would you like to weigh? Be sure to mention any health conditions that influence
your food intake (e.g. diabetes, pregnancy, etc.). Are you currently taking vitamin or
mineral supplements? If so, give a brief description of the supplement(s) and explain
why you are taking them.
B.
For nutrients of interest:
- Estimate your energy expenditure (output) using equations on page 249-250 of your
text. Please show your calculations. How does your average daily energy intake
compare to your estimated total energy output (page 8)? Give a rational explanation if
there is a large discrepancy (250 kcals) between the energy intake versus energy output
figures. Are you meeting your protein needs (protein RDA)?
- Did you consume the EAR or AI for micronutrients? If not, which nutrients were low?
- Suggest ways (food sources, etc.) that you can change your diet to meet the DRIs. Be
realistic. Do you recommend supplements? Why or why not?
- Are you consuming enough fiber in your diet? Any need for improvement?
C.
How does your diet (composition of kcals) compare to the recommended dietary
guidelines (page 10). Are you consuming the recommended number of servings from the
6 food groups (page 11)? Are you making nutrient dense choices in each of the food
groups? What is your added sugar intake like? If necessary, suggest ways that you can
change your diet to be more like the guidelines.
D.
Evaluate your food behavior. What did you learn about it? Are there any changes
needed?
RECORD OF FOOD INTAKE AND BEHAVIOR
DAY OF THE WEEK
DATE:
INTAKE RECORD
FOOD/BEVERAGE
5
FOOD BEHAVIOR
AMOUNT
CODE
WHERE
EATEN?
TIME
WHAT
WERE YOU
DOING?
HOW DID
YOU FEEL?
WHOM
WERE YOU
WITH?
RECORD OF FOOD INTAKE AND BEHAVIOR
DAY OF THE WEEK
DATE:
INTAKE RECORD
FOOD/BEVERAGE
6
FOOD BEHAVIOR
AMOUNT
CODE
WHERE
EATEN?
TIME
WHAT
WERE YOU
DOING?
HOW DID
YOU FEEL?
WHOM
WERE YOU
WITH?
RECORD OF FOOD INTAKE AND BEHAVIOR
DAY OF THE WEEK
DATE:
INTAKE RECORD
FOOD/BEVERAGE
7
FOOD BEHAVIOR
AMOUNT
CODE
WHERE
EATEN?
TIME
WHAT
WERE YOU
DOING?
HOW DID
YOU FEEL?
WHOM
WERE YOU
WITH?
SUMMARY OF NUTRIENT INTAKE
DAY
kcals
Protein
(g)
Carb
(g)
Fiber
(g)
Alcohol
(g)
Total Fat
(g)
Sat Fat
(g)
Mono Fat
(g)
Poly Fat
(g)
---
14 g /
1,000 kcals
---
---
---
---
---
1
2
3
Average
*
DRI
**
* estimate based on equations on pages 249-250 of text
** calculate an individualized protein DRI (show calculation here)
8
SUMMARY OF NUTRIENT INTAKE
Chol
(mg)
DAY 1
DAY 2
DAY 3
Average
DRI
---
EAR/AI
---
9
Calc
(mg)
Iron Magn
(mg) (mg)
Phos
(mg)
Zinc
(mg)
Vit A
(RE)
Vit
E
(mg)
Thia
(mg)
Ribo
(mg)
Niac
(mg)
Vit
B6
(mg)
Vit
B12
(µg)
Fola
(µg)
Vit C
(mg)
SUMMARY OF DIET RECORD
YOUR AVERAGE
RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES
% of kcals from protein
10 - 35 %
% of kcals from carbo
45 - 65 %
% of kcals from fat
20-35%
% saturated fat
(10% or less)
% poly fat
(10% or less)
% mono fat
% of kcals from alcohol
---------
Cholesterol
300 mg or less
10
PATTERN OF DAILY FOOD CHOICES
GROUP
DAY 1
DAY 2
DAY 3
AVERAGE
Breads, Cereals, other grains
Fruits
Vegetables
Meat, Poultry, Fish, others
Milk, Cheese, Yogurt
Fats, Oils, and Sweets
11
EARs/AIs for DRI
Thiamin (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
1.0 mg/day
Vitamin E (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
12 mg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
0.9 mg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
12 mg/day
Riboflavin (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
1.1 mg/day
Vitamin A (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
625 µg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
0.9 mg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
500 g/day
Niacin (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
12 mg/day
Iron (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
6 mg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
11 mg/day
Women: 19-50 years
51-70+ years
8.1 mg/day
5 mg/day
Vitamin B-6 (EAR)
Men:
19-50 years
51-70+ years
1.1 mg/day
1.4 mg/day
Calcium (AI)
Men:
19-50 years
51-70+ years
1,000 mg/day
1,200 mg/day
Women: 19-50 years
51-70+ years
1.1 mg/day
1.3 mg/day
Women: 19-50 years
51-70+ years
1,000 mg/day
1,200 mg/day
Folate (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
320 µg/day
Zinc (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
9.4 mg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
320 µg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
6.8 mg/day
Vitamin B-12 (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
2 µg/day
Phosphorus (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
580 mg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
2 µg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
580 mg/day
Vitamin C (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
75 mg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
60 mg/day
Magnesium (EAR)
Men:
19-30 years
31-70+ years
330 mg/day
350 mg/day
Women: 19-50 years
31-70+ years
255 mg/day
265 mg/day
Selenium (EAR)
Men:
19-70+ years
45 µg/day
Women: 19-70+ years
45 µg/day
Vitamin D (AI)
Men:
19-50 years
51-70+ years
5µg/day (200IU)
10µg/day (400IU)
Women: 19-70+ years
51-70+ years
5µg/day (200IU)
10µg/day (400IU)
12
Point Distribution
Forms:
Diet Records
Summary of Nutrient Intake
Summary of Diet Record
Narrative:
Part A
Parts B + C
Part D
Writing
15 points
15 points
10 points
5 points
15 points
5 points
10 points
75 points
13