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Growth Maintenance & Repair. provide calories need to consume fairly large amounts energy yielding nutrients liberate energy Proteins Aid release of energy needed in smaller amounts • Needed in large amounts crucial nutrient, measure • energy in energy-containing nutrients of the foods we eat. Total Energy: 372 calories Fats: 20 g – 180 cal Protein: 21 g – 84 cal Carbohydrates: 27 g – 108 cal Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI’s) • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA’s) • Adequate Intakes (AI’s) • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (Uls) • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) 50 to 70 percent of your body weight • crucial nutrient, glucose • Circulates the blood primary one or two Added Sugars steady source of energy to be used for energy production. Glycogen Starches, the majority of complex carbohydrates Fiber, Dietary Fiber soaks up water gels Binds water stool bulkier and softer Cellular integrity Healthy reproduction Absorption of fat soluble vitamins Support and cushioning of organs Thermal insulation and for long duration activity, Fats provide a concentrated source of energy (Lots and lots of long duration energy) fatty acids saturation Type of Lipid Fats of interest Saturated Level of “Saturation” Fully Trans fat Fully Monounsaturated Omega 9 Polyunsaturated Omega 3’s (DHA & EPA) & Omega 6 1 double bond 2+ double bonds Solid or liquid at room temperature Where it is found Solid Mostly animal meat and dairy, but also in palm and coconut oils. Solid Hydrogenated foods like margarine and shortenings as well as many commercially available baked goods and foods needing a long shelf life. Liquid Plant Oils Liquid Plant, seed, and nut oils, as well as Fish (Omega-3; DHA and EPA) Health Effect Too much can increase LDL levels, heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes Too much can increase LDL levels, heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes Reduce blood clots, Decrease inflammation Normalize heart rhythms, Lower the risk of developing or dying from high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, and Pg. 280 Fig. 8-6 Limit these fats Solid fats with singe bonds between all carbons Saturated fatty acids Hydrogenated fats (contain saturated and trans fats) • Animal sources: • Stick margarine and fatty meats, poultry shortening fat and skin, butter • Processed snacks, cheese, high-fat sweets, cookies, dairy crackers, and other • Plant sources: Palm baked goods and coconut oils • Some deep-fried foods, including fast food Favor these Fats Liquid oils with one or more carboncarbon double bonds Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids • Canola, olive, and • Omega-3 from fish, salmon, mackerel, safflower oils • Peanuts, almonds, sardines, pecans, pistachios, anchovies, trout, and tuna and cashews • Omega-3 from • Olives and plants: flaxseed, avocados walnuts, canola and soybeans oils, and other vegetable oils body makes cholesterol blood cholesterol dietary cholesterol • Lipoproteins • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Amino Acids 20 amino acids 9 essential amino acids 11 nonessential amino acids essential amino acids missing one or more… • essential amino acids The Micronutrients Travel B complex & Vit. C bloodstream Stored A,D,E & K. liver fatty tissue inorganic • At least 1,000 milligrams needed daily • Needed smaller amounts • Contain phosphoric acid, which cause you to excrete extra calcium. • And other body functions From excess meat consumption, iron fortification, and supplementation, is associated with: • Cardiovascular disease and Cancer • Weak pulse • Dizziness • Shock • Confusion upper intake level (UL) • Highest level of daily intake no risk of adverse health effects • Fat soluble pose But, when you take vitamins instead of eating functional foods such as whole food, fortified foods, enriched foods, or enhanced foods, You lose out on… phytochemicals found in plants may affect health protect cells from unstable and highly reactive molecules • Free radicals • Cancer • Heart attacks • Stroke Antioxidants… • Interact with • stabilize food choices raise or lower • chronic diseases becoming obese life choices chances Increased Energy Intake & low nutrient intake Decreased Activity & Good Nutrient Intake • too many calories/energy not enough nutrients Energy/Nutrient Intake = Energy/Nutrients Burned • Eating the right mixture of nutrients • from a variety of foods, • within the right amount of energy intake. Food Intake = Food Burned Energy Intake = Energy Burned • Never do a Diet! Exercise is the key! Safe, effective & long lasting weight management ... We need to be in Energy Imbalance Increased Energy Expenditure Decrease Energy Intake • • • • • When a food you like is high in fat, • balance it with foods that are low in fat. 1) Pay attention to the serving size, especially how many servings there are in the food package. Then ask yourself, "How many servings am I consuming"? (e.g., 1/2 serving, 1 serving, or more) 2) Remember: the number of servings you consume determines the number of calories you actually eat (your portion amount). Eating too many calories per day is linked to overweight and obesity. 3) Important: Health experts recommend that you keep your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol as low as possible as part of a nutritionally balanced diet. 5) "%DVs are based on a 2,000 calorie diet". This statement must be on all food labels. 6) The %DV helps you determine if a serving of food is high or low in a nutrient. 5%DV or less is low and 20%DV or more is high 4) Eating enough of these nutrients can improve your health and help reduce the risk of some diseases and conditions. Most Americans don't get enough dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron in their diets.