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Transcript
Growth
 Maintenance

& Repair.
provide calories
need to consume fairly large amounts
energy yielding nutrients
liberate energy
Proteins
Aid
release of energy
needed in smaller amounts
• Needed in large amounts
crucial nutrient,
measure
• energy in energy-containing nutrients of the foods we
eat.
Total Energy: 372 calories
Fats: 20 g – 180 cal
Protein: 21 g – 84 cal
Carbohydrates: 27 g – 108 cal
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI’s)
• Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA’s)
• Adequate Intakes (AI’s)
• Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (Uls)
• Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)
50 to 70 percent of your body weight
• crucial nutrient,
glucose
• Circulates the blood
primary
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one or two
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Added Sugars
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steady source of energy
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 to be used for energy production.
Glycogen
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Starches, the majority of complex carbohydrates
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Fiber,
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Dietary Fiber
soaks up water
gels
Binds water
stool bulkier and softer
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Cellular integrity
Healthy reproduction
Absorption of fat soluble vitamins
Support and cushioning of organs
Thermal insulation
and for long duration activity,
Fats provide a concentrated source of energy
(Lots and lots of long duration energy)
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fatty acids
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saturation
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Type of Lipid
Fats of
interest
Saturated
Level of
“Saturation”
Fully
Trans fat
Fully
Monounsaturated
Omega 9
Polyunsaturated
Omega 3’s
(DHA & EPA)
& Omega 6
1 double bond
2+ double bonds
Solid or liquid at
room temperature
Where it is found
Solid
Mostly animal meat
and dairy, but also in
palm and coconut
oils.
Solid
Hydrogenated foods
like margarine and
shortenings as well as
many commercially
available baked
goods and foods
needing a long shelf
life.
Liquid
Plant Oils
Liquid
Plant, seed, and nut
oils, as well as Fish (Omega-3; DHA and
EPA)
Health Effect
Too much can
increase LDL levels,
heart disease, stroke,
type 2 diabetes
Too much can
increase LDL levels,
heart disease, stroke,
type 2 diabetes
Reduce blood clots,
Decrease
inflammation
Normalize heart
rhythms, Lower the
risk of developing or
dying from high blood
pressure, coronary
heart disease, and
Pg. 280 Fig. 8-6
Limit these fats
Solid fats with singe bonds between all
carbons
Saturated fatty
acids
Hydrogenated fats
(contain saturated and
trans fats)
• Animal sources:
• Stick margarine and
fatty meats, poultry shortening
fat and skin, butter • Processed snacks,
cheese, high-fat
sweets, cookies,
dairy
crackers, and other
• Plant sources: Palm baked goods
and coconut oils
• Some deep-fried
foods, including fast
food
Favor these Fats
Liquid oils with one or more carboncarbon double bonds
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
• Canola, olive, and • Omega-3 from fish,
salmon, mackerel,
safflower oils
• Peanuts, almonds, sardines,
pecans, pistachios, anchovies, trout,
and tuna
and cashews
• Omega-3 from
• Olives and
plants: flaxseed,
avocados
walnuts, canola and
soybeans oils, and
other vegetable oils
body makes
cholesterol
blood cholesterol
dietary cholesterol
• Lipoproteins
• Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
• High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Amino Acids
20
amino acids
9 essential amino acids
11 nonessential amino acids
essential amino acids
missing one or more…
• essential amino acids
The Micronutrients
Travel
B complex & Vit. C
bloodstream
Stored
A,D,E & K.
liver
fatty tissue
inorganic
• At least 1,000 milligrams needed daily
• Needed
smaller amounts
• Contain phosphoric acid, which cause you to excrete
extra calcium.
• And other body functions
From excess meat consumption, iron
fortification, and supplementation, is
associated with:
• Cardiovascular disease and Cancer
• Weak pulse
• Dizziness
• Shock
• Confusion
upper intake level (UL)
• Highest level of daily intake
no risk of adverse health effects
• Fat soluble
pose
But, when you take vitamins instead of eating functional foods
such as whole food, fortified foods, enriched foods, or enhanced
foods,
You lose out on…
phytochemicals
found in plants
may affect health
protect cells from unstable and highly reactive
molecules
• Free radicals
• Cancer
• Heart attacks
• Stroke
Antioxidants…
• Interact with
• stabilize
food choices
raise or lower
• chronic diseases
becoming obese
life choices
chances
Increased Energy Intake
& low nutrient intake
Decreased Activity
& Good Nutrient Intake
• too many calories/energy
not enough nutrients
Energy/Nutrient Intake
= Energy/Nutrients Burned
• Eating the right mixture of nutrients
• from a variety of foods,
• within the right amount of energy intake.
Food Intake
=
Food Burned
Energy Intake
=
Energy Burned
• Never do a Diet!
Exercise is the key!
Safe, effective & long lasting weight management ...
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We need to be in Energy
Imbalance
Increased Energy Expenditure
Decrease Energy Intake
•
•
•
•
• When a food you like is high in fat,
• balance it with foods that are low in fat.
1) Pay attention to the serving size,
especially how many servings there are
in the food package. Then ask yourself,
"How many servings am I consuming"?
(e.g., 1/2 serving, 1 serving, or more)
2) Remember: the number of servings
you consume determines the number
of calories you actually eat (your
portion amount).
Eating too many calories per day is
linked to overweight and obesity.
3) Important: Health experts
recommend that you keep your intake
of saturated fat, trans fat and
cholesterol as low as possible as part of
a nutritionally balanced diet.
5) "%DVs are based on a 2,000 calorie
diet". This statement must be on all food
labels.
6) The %DV helps you
determine if a serving
of food is high or low in
a nutrient.
5%DV or less is low
and 20%DV or more is
high
4) Eating enough of
these nutrients can
improve your health
and help reduce the
risk of some diseases
and conditions.
Most Americans don't
get enough dietary
fiber, vitamin A,
vitamin C, calcium,
and iron in their diets.