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Transcript
Time lines of historic time are divided in:
• Prehistory
• History
PREHISTORY, goes from the appearance of
the human being until the emerge of writing
process.
• Stone age
• Paleolithic
• Mesolithic
• Neolithic
• Metal Age (copper, bronze and iron)
HISTORY is divided into:
•Old ages or antiquity: starts with the
emerge of the writing process and ends
with the fall of the Roman Empire.
•Middle ages (early-low and high):
ends in the taken of Constantinople by
the Turks.
•Modern age: ends with the beginning of
the French Revolution.
•Contemporary era: gathers all the
events and limestones of the last century
• When we classify History by themes
and activities, we find different
branches of history:
• Politic history
• Economic history
• Social history
• Technology history
• History of Art
• History of Ideas
• History of Mentality
POLITIC HISTORY
• Studies the aspects of past that are related to
the formal organization of the politic power
in/among societies.
ECONOMIC HISTORY
• Studies through the use of statistics and math
systems, the social phenomena that are
related to economy based on a quantified
data.
SOCIAL HISTORY
• Studies the process of change in the social
structure and internal dynamics of the
different societies, in order to understand the
evolution of each of them.
TECHNOLOGY HISTORY
• Studies the evolution of the technology
processes referring to the manufacture of
tools and to the development of skills and
knowledge needed to fabricate them.
HISTORY OF ART
• Studies the different ways in which art has been
put across by people in different societies and
periods of times, which reflect them customs,
ideas, beliefs and values of them.
HISTORY OF IDEAS
• Studies the origins and development of politic
and religious ideologies, social and economic
philosophy, and also the studies of the evolution
of history known as HISTOGRAPHY.
HISTORY OF MENTALITY
• It studies the evolution of “patterns of affect”
and social/psychological conduct established
by anthropologists, that supposes the
existence of a collective way of thinking in
each culture.
THE AUXILIARY SCIENCES
• History as a science possesses different
branches (which has been already studied),
and at there are several sciences interrelated
with History. These sciences can be divided in:
• Social sciences
• Human sciences
• Natural sciences
• Formal or exact sciences
SOCIAL SCIENCES
• Social or Cultural Anthropology: studies culture,
thus anything and everything created by human
(material or non-material), as well as the different
societies and ethnic groups.
• Archeology: studies and infers the possible living
manners of societies and civilizations, which have
already disappeared, through the recovering and
analysis of objects from material culture, known
as archeological remains.
SOCIAL SCIENCES
• Historic Demography: studies through
observation and statistics, the changes in
population, such as its growth rate, nativity
and mortality rate, migratory patterns, etc.
• Economy: studies the aspects of society
related to the satisfaction of human needs,
production factors, goods and services,
market rates, employment, Gross National
Product (GNP), among others.
SOCIAL SCIENCES
• Geography: studies the physical space where
human activities are developed. Aspects
studied such as natural resources, weather
and climate, water bodies presence, soil
quality, landmarks and others.
• Linguistic: studies the origins and diffusion of
languages and dialects from different regions
of the world.
SOCIAL SCIENCES
• Politics: studies the human activities related to
the government and power administration in
the societies around the world.
• Social Psychology: studies and analyzes human
conduct in a society, which answers to the
traditions and values that compounds the
collective conscience of regions and ethnic
groups.
SOCIAL SCIENCES
• Sociology: traditionally studies the structure
and function of the modern west society,
particularly aspects related to mobility, social
classes, institutions and others.
HUMAN SCIENCES
• Philosophy: etymologically means “love to
wisdom“ and studies the intellectual and
systematic foundations of every science and
way of thinking.
• Arts: studies how human creativity produce
sensory, esthetic and aesthetic material and
non-material pieces, that provoke an emotive
response in the human being.
NATURAL SCIENCES
• Biology: studies the living beings, specially the
human body, and then gives important facts
to understand human behavior. It also studies,
biological factors of the environment in which
societies and communities live together.
• Physics: studies natures interrelationship of
matter and energy, establishing laws and
theories in which nature function and
manifestation are built upon.
NATURAL SCIENCES
• Chemistry: studies the properties of
substances and their exchanges of matter
energy. It´s divided in other branches such as
organic, inorganic, physical-chemistry and
biochemistry.
FORMAL AND EXACT SCIENCES
• Logic: studies the mental forms of the thinking
process as itself, including concept, idea,
judgment and , with the purpose of confering
a fallacy onto a correct fact.
• Math: studies through the use of logic and
reasoning , abstract matters such as numbers,
geometric figures and operational relations to
connect logic concepts.
CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY
• Work in PAIRS: Choose 10 auxiliary sciences
and discuss what would be the
interrelationship among History and each of
them.
• Write your ideas on a sheet of paper, to be
handed in. (20 minutes)