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Transcript
The Urinary System
SHANDONG UNIVERSITY
Liu Zhiyu
The Urinary System
Composition




Kidney 肾-form urine
Ureter 输尿管-conduct urine from
kidneys to bladder
Bladder 膀胱-receives and stores
urine
Urethra 尿道-conducts urine from
bladder to exterior of body (discharged)
Kidney
General features






Bean shaped, reddish-brown organs
Superior extremity-broad and thin
Inferior extremity-narrow and thick
Anterior surface-convex
Posterior surface-flat
Lateral border-convex
Kidney

Medial border-concave



Renal hilum -a vertical slit on
the medial border of kidney
Renal pedicle - the structures
which enter and leave the renal
hilum,including the renal vein,
renal artery, renal pelvis,
lymphatic vessels and nerves
Order of structures in the renal
pedicle
 From anterior to posterior-V.
A. P.
 From superior to inferior-A. V.
P.
Kidney

Renal sinus


The renal hilum extends into
a large cavity within the
kidney
Occupied by the renal
vessels, minor renal calices,
major renal calices, renal
pelvis and some adipose
tissue
Renal structure

Renal cortex


Renal medulla







renal columns
Renal pyramids
(15~20)
Renal papilla
Papillary foramina
Minor renal calices
(7-8)
Major renal calices
(2~3)
Renal pelvis
Coverings of kidney

Fibrous capsule
-a strong fibrous
capsule which strips
easily from a normal
kidney surface but
adheres firmly to an
organ that has been
inflamed
Coverings of kidney

Fatty renal capsule

Renal fascia
-a thick adipose
connective tissue capsule,
surrounds the fibrous
capsule. It acts as a shock
absorber to protect the
kidney from jolting and
jarring
-on outside, surrounds
both the kidney and
suprarenal gland, holding
these organs in place
Position of Kidney


Lie behind the peritoneum high up
on the posterior abdominal wall on
either side of the vertebral column
Upper pole nearer to media plan
than lower pole
Position of Kidney




Left kidney lies at the level from the
lower border of T11 to L2; the 12th
rib is behind its middle part of the
post surface
Right kidney lies slightly lower than
the left kidney, at the level from the
upper border of T12 to L3; the 12th
rib is behind its upper part of the
post surface
Renal hilum at the level of L1, is
about 5cm from the posterior
median line
Renal region-the area between
12th rib and the lateral margin of
erector spinae
Position of Kidney
Relations of kidneys


Superiorly-superarenal gland
Posteriorly



Three muscles
 Diaphragm (pleural cavity),
 Psoas major
 Quadratus lumborum
Three nerves
 Subcostal n.
 Iliohypogastric n.
 Ilioinguinal n.
Medial


Left kidney-abdominal aorta
Right kidney-inferior vena cava
Relations of kidneys

Anteriorly


Left kidney
 Stomach (superior)
 Tail of pancreas and splenic
vessels (middle)
 Loops of intestine and left
colic flexure (inferior)
Right kidney
 Right lobe of liver (superior)
 Right colic flexure (inferior)
 Descending part of
duodenum (medially)
Renal segments


The kidney is divided into five
vascular segments and each is
supplied by a branch of the renal
artery; between the segments
there is no anastomosis.
The segments are





Superior segment
Superior anterior segment
Inferior anterior segment
Inferior segment
Posterior segment
Ureters


Muscular tube, about 25cm
long
Three parts



Abdominal part-descend
on the psoas major behind
the peritoneum
Pelvic part-in females,
passes 2cm lateral to the
neck of uterus and lies
below the uterine artery
Intramural part-passes
obliquely through the
bladder wall for 2cm long
Three constrictions of Ureters
1. At the pelvoureteric
junction
2. Where it crosses the
pelvic inlet and iliac
vessels
3. Where it pierces the
bladder wall obliquely (at
intramural part)
Multislice CT urogram.
Coronal reformat showing the
enhancing renal parenchyma and
both ureters along their entire
length.
Relation of abdominal part of ureter

Anterior to left ureter




Anterior to right ureter






Duodenojejunal flexure
Left colic vessels
Testicular vessels
Descending part of
duodenum
Right colic vessels
Iliocolic vessels
Testicular vessels
Terminal part of ileum
Right to right ureter


Cecum
Vermiform appendix
Bladder
General features
-pyramidal in shape




when empty, having
Apex
Fundus
Body of bladder
Neck
Interior of bladder
★Trigone of bladder
 Smooth triangular area at inner
surface of the funds of bladder
 Formed by internal urethral orifice
anteriorly and two ureteric orifices
laterally
 In this area absents submucosal
layer, where the mucous
membrane is firmly adherent to
the muscular coat, and is always
smooth

Interureteric fold -muscular
elevation, between ureteric orifices.
Location of bladder


In the adult, it lies in the
lesser pelvis, behind the
pubic symphysis, in front of
seminal vesicle, ampulla
ductus deferentis and
rectum in the male, and in
front of uterus and vagina in
the female.
In the young child the empty
bladder projects above the
pelvic inlet
Urethra
Female urethra


Relatively short (about 5cm
long), wide and straight
Opens into vaginal vestibule