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PRACTICE EXAM—UNIT 1 1. Name the correct order of appearance on earth of the following: a. Atmospheric oxygen, prokaryotes, land plants, eukaryotes b. Prokaryotes, land plants, Atmospheric oxygen, eukaryotes c. Eukaryotes, atmospheric oxygen, prokaryotes, land plants d. Prokaryotes, Atmospheric oxygen, eukaryotes, land plants e. Atmospheric oxygen, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, land plants 2. A theory is _____. a. a poorly supported idea that has little backing but might be correct b. a well-supported concept that has broad explanatory power c. the same thing as a hypothesis d. not correct unless it is several years old e. a concept that, once established in the scientific literature, can be modified but never rejected, even when new scientific methods produce data that don't fit 3. A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable to be scientifically valid. Being testable and falsifiable means that _____. a. some conceivable observation or experiment could reveal whether a given hypothesis is correct or incorrect b. the hypothesis has been proved wrong c. there must be several options in the hypothesis to choose from, one of which is correct d. if the hypothesis is not correct, the experiment was a failure 4. Science itself is not capable of _____. a. determining the physical causes for physical phenomena or explaining naturally occurring events b. being reproduced or falsified c. formulating testable hypotheses in seeking natural causes for natural phenomena d. addressing questions of ethical dilemmas e. being an active and dynamic process 5. Taxonomy is ___. a. A hierarchical classification of organisms. b. A classification that reflects historical relationships. c. A division of organisms based on similar sets of characteristics d. a and c e. All of the above 6. The origin of organelles for eukaryotes was proposed by the a. Horizontal gene transfer b. Endosymbiont theory c. Plasmid theory d. Greek mythology relating to the chimera 7. Internal membranes in eukaryotes were said to have developed a. From infoldings of the ancestral prokaryotic plasma membrane b. From the cytoskeleton of bacteria c. From internal parasites d. From seeds 8. Prokaryotes are ___. a. Examples of protists b. Classified into one domain c. Important because they changed the earth’s atmosphere by creating CO2 d. Unable to move e. Important decomposers 9. Which of the following statements about the Endosymbiont Theory is false? a. Cells are genetic chimera b. The similarities between mitochondria and prokaryotes are an important piece of evidence for this theory c. Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes that engulfed “endosymbionts” d. Ancestors of eukaryotic cells formed a symbiotic relationship with prokaryotes which then became a dependent relationship e. None of the above (What must the larger prokaryote in this theory have had in order for the theory to hold true? __________________________________________) 10. Gram-_________ bacteria have lipopolysaccharides on their cell wall and _________ peptidoglycan than the other type of Gram bacteria, meaning they are _____________ resistant to antibiotics. a. Negative…more…more b. Negative…less…more c. Positive…less…less d. Positive…more…more e. None of the above (How do antibiotics kill bacteria? __________________________________________________) 11. What is true about a clade? a. It is a group of unrelated organisms. b. It is a group of species with a common ancestor. c. It is a hypothesis about a group of species. d. b and c e. All of the above 12. Eukaryotic cells, but not bacterial cells, possess _____. a. Plasmids b. A nucleoid with a circular chromosome c. Membrane-enclosed organelles d. Cell walls e. All of the above 13. Prokaryotes a. Are sometimes able to move b. Have internal organelles c. Have no DNA d. Reproduce slowly e. None of the above 14. Protists a. are prokaryotes. b. are mostly unicellular. c. are at the top of many food chains. d. all of the above 15. _____ produces four daughter cells of a different ploidy, while _____ produces two identical daughter cells of the same ploidy. a. Mitosis, meiosis b. Mitosis, mitosis c. Meiosis, mitosis d. Meiosis, meiosis 16. Chagas disease is caused by what genus and vector? a. Plasmodium, kissing bug b. Plasmodium, mosquito c. Trypanosoma, kissing bug d. Trypanosoma, mosquito 17. Agar for culturing media to grow bacteria is extracted from _________. a. Dinoflagellates b. Green algae c. Red algae d. Diatoms e. Oomycetes 18. Which organisms are capable of producing a "red tide"? a. dinoflagellates b. diatoms c. amoebozoans d. euglenids e. red algae 19. The gametophyte generation of a moss _____. a. produces spores b. is dependent on the sporophyte c. is haploid d. is not the dominant stage, compared with the sporophyte 20. In plants, a ___________ produces gametes, while a __________ develops from a zygote. a. sporophyte, sporophyte b. gametophyte, sporophyte c. sporangium, gametophyte d. archegonium, gametophyte 21. Plants undergo alternation of generations, which _____. a. Means the sporophyte generation alternates with the gametophyte generation b. Means the vascular generation alternates with the nonvascular generation c. Means male plants alternate with female plants d. Happens in land plants and protists e. Happens in all sexually reproducing organisms 22. What were some problems that the first land plants probably encountered in moving to land from water? Some benefits? _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 23. Which of the following is not evidence that charophyceans are the closest algal relatives of plants? a. similar sperm structure b. apical meristems c. similarities in cell wall formation during cell division (phragmoplast) d. genetic similarities in some organelles e. similarities in a rose-shaped complex that synthesizes cellulose 24. Which of the following is not common to all phyla of land plants? a. apical meristem b. alternation of generations c. dependent embryo d. xylem and phloem e. multicellular gametangia 25. What is the advantage of some land plants having a branched sporophyte? _______________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 26. Ferns have _______, while bryophytes do not have this structure. a. Sporangia b. Dominate gametophytes c. Seeds d. Pollen e. Phloem 27. Which of the following is not common to all phyla of vascular plants? a. the development of seeds b. alternation of generations c. dominance of the diploid (sporophyte) generation d. xylem and phloem e. sporophyte that is independent of the gametophyte 28. Vascular tissue is useful to a plant because ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 29. Bryophytes, like ferns, are limited mostly to moist environments because _____. a. their pollen is carried by water b. they lack vascular tissue c. they have swimming sperm d. their seeds do not store water 30. Ferns are ecologically important because: a. They have antibacterial properties b. They store 400 billion tons of organic carbon c. They feed 80% of the human population d. They are used for fossil fuels 31. In the land plant life cycle _____ cells within a sporangium undergo _____ to produce _____ spores. a. diploid ... meiosis ... haploid b. haploid ... mitosis ... haploid c. diploid ... mitosis ... diploid d. diploid ... mitosis ... haploid e. haploid ... meiosis ... haploid 32. In the land plant life cycle _____ cells within a gametangia undergo _____ to produce _____ gametes. a. diploid ... meiosis ... haploid b. haploid ... mitosis ... haploid c. diploid ... mitosis ... diploid d. diploid ... mitosis ... haploid e. haploid ... meiosis ... haploid 33. Food for the embryo in seeds of gymnosperms comes from ______, while the seed coat comes from ______. a. Integuments, male gametophyte b. Male gametophyte, adult sporophyte c. Adult sporophyte, female gametophyte d. Female gametophyte, adult sporophyte 34. What happened to the size of the gametophyte throughout the history of land plants? ______________________________________________________________________________ 35. In gymnosperms, how is the male gametophyte dispersed? ____________________________ In what structure is the male gametophyte found? ______________________________________ 36. What’s the difference between pollination and fertilization? ___________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 37. Cycads, which are dioecious, a. Have either male or female parts on a single tree b. Have both male and female parts on a single tree c. Make one type of spore d. Make two types of spores e. None of the above 38. How are seeds more beneficial than spores? _______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 39. Seeds contain a. An embryo b. A store of food c. A resistant coat d. All of the above 40. Characteristics of seed plants are a. Ovules b. Increased size of gametophytes as compared to non-seed vascular plants c. Pollen d. Homospory e. Both a and c 41. In seed plants, megasporangia produce megaspores, which produce the _____ that produces _____. a. Female gametophyte, eggs b. Female gametophyte, sperm c. Male gametophyte, eggs d. Male gametophyte, sperm e. Sporophyte, spores 42. 80% of all the calories consumed by humans come from a. Bryophytes b. Ferns and related plants c. Gymnosperms d. Angiosperms e. None of the above 43. In angiosperms, in what structure is the female gametophyte found? ____________________ 44. Fruits are considered mature _________________, while seeds are considered mature _____________. 45. In seeds of angiosperms, ________________ acts as the food source for the embryo and is created by the process of ________________________________________. GOOD LUCK ON YOUR TEST!!!