Download India – Emergence of Civilization

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Catuṣkoṭi wikipedia , lookup

Buddhist ethics wikipedia , lookup

Buddhism and Western philosophy wikipedia , lookup

Buddhist art wikipedia , lookup

Buddhist meditation wikipedia , lookup

Greco-Buddhism wikipedia , lookup

Maurya Empire wikipedia , lookup

Triratna Buddhist Community wikipedia , lookup

Noble Eightfold Path wikipedia , lookup

India – Emergence of
Location (Map of Indus River Valley)
Harappan Civilization (7000-6500 BC)
A. Political & Social Structures
B. Culture
Mohenjo-Daro: Ancient City on the
© Borromeo/Art Resource, NY
The Harappan peoples, like their contemporaries in Mesopotamia, developed a writing
system to record their spoken language. Unfortunately, it has not yet been deciphered.
Most extant examples of Harappan writing are found on fired clay seals depicting
human figures and animals. These seals have been found in houses and were probably
used to identify the owners of goods for sale. Other seals may have been used as
amulets or have had other religious significance. Several depict religious figures or
ritualistic scenes of sacrifice.
© Scala/Art Resource, NY
Arrival of the Aryans
A. Who are the Aryans? (1500-1000BC)
B. Mauryan Empire (342-301 BC)
First Dynasty in India
The Empire of
Ashoka, the greatest
Indian monarch, reigned
over the Mauryan dynasty
in the third century
B.C.E. This map shows
the extent of his empire,
with the location of the
pillar edicts that were
erected along major trade
Carved out of solid rock cliffs
during the Mauryan dynasty,
rock chambers served as
meditation halls for traveling
Buddhist monks. Initially,
they resembled freestanding
shrines of wood and thatch
from the Vedic period but
evolved into magnificent
chapels carved deep into the
mountainside, such as this one
at Karli.
© age fotostock/SuperStock
Caste and Class
1. Priestly Class (Brahmins)
Warrior Class (Kshatriya)
Commonor Class (Vaisya)
Peasant Class (Sudras)
Untouchables (Pariahs)
Reasons for Survival of Caste System:
1. provided an identity for individuals in a highly hierarchical society
2. means for new groups to achieve recognizable place in broader
3. primitive welfare system
4. provided an element of stability in society that was in a state of political
Daily Life:
family centered and religiously bound
culture for women
Escaping the Wheel of Life: Religion
Blend of Dravidian and Aryan Culture
Sacred text known as the Vedas
(collection of hymns and ceremonies)
A. Hinduism (Reincarnation)
Dancing Shiva
Hindu deity Shiva is often
presented in the form of a bronze statue
performing a cosmic dance in which he
simultaneously creates and destroys the
universe. While his upper right hand
creates the cosmos, his upper left hand
reduces it in flames, and the lower two
hands offer eternal blessing. Shiva’s
dancing statues visually convey to his
followers the message of his power and
© William J. Duiker
The Three Faces of Shiva
In the first centuries C.E., Hindus began to adopt Buddhist rock art. One outstanding example is at the Elephanta
Caves, near the modern city of Mumbai (Bombay). Dominating the cave is this 18-foot-high triple-headed statue
of Shiva, representing the Hindu deity in all his various aspects. The central figure shows him in total serenity,
enveloped in absolute knowledge. The angry profile on the left portrays him as the destroyer, struggling against
time, death, and other negative forces. The right-hand profile shows his loving and feminine side in the guise of
his beautiful wife, Parvati.
© Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS.
Buddhism (Middle Path)
Achieve Nirvana (Paradise)
1. life is suffering
2. suffering is caused by desire
3. the way to end suffering is to end desire
4. the way to end desire is to avoid the extremes of a life of
vulgar materialism and a life of self-torture and to follow the
Middle Path
8-fold way to Middle Path
right knowledge
right purpose
right speech
right conduct
right occupation
right effort
right awareness
right meditation ….. Becomes a Philosophy!
Buddha Indonesia & Thailand
Female Earth
This earth spirit, sculpted on a gatepost
of the Buddhist stupa at Sanchi 2,200
years ago, illustrates how earlier
representations of the fertility goddess
were incorporated into Buddhist art.
Women were revered as powerful
fertility symbols and considered
dangerous when menstruating or
immediately after giving birth.
Voluptuous and idealized, the earth
spirit could allegedly cause a tree to
blossom if she merely touched a branch
with her arm or wrapped a leg around
the tree’s trunk.
© Atlantide Phototravel (Massimo Borchi)/CORBIS
Jainism – extreme simplicity