SEMESTER 2 BIOLOGY VOCABULARY Peyton Mogley AND Christie Bergesch 1.Algal Bloom: An immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient. 2.Autotrophs: Organisms that capture energy from the sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce it's own food from inorganic materials. 3.Biogeochemical Cycle: Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another. 4.Biomass: The total amount of living tissue within a given tropic level. 5.Biome: Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities. 6.Biosphere: Contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air (atmosphere) 7.Carnivore: Eats animals. 8.Chemosynthesis: Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates. 9.Community: Assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area. 10.Consumer: Heterotrophic organism that feeds on other organisms in a food chain 11.Decomposer: Breaks down organic matter. 12.Denitrification: Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas. 13.Detritivore: Feeds on plants and animal remains (dead matter) 14.Ecological Pyramid: Diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each tropic level in a food chain or food web. 15.Ecology: The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings. 16.Ecosystem: A collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. CHAPTER 3 VOCAB 17.Evaporation: The process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas. 18.Food Chain: A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. 19.Food Web: Network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem. 20.Herbivore: Obtains energy by eating only plants. 21.Heterotroph: Organism that relies on other organisms for their energy and food supply. 22.Limiting Nutrient: Single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem. 1.abiotic factor: nonliving or physical factors that shape an ecosystem 2.biotic factor: biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem 3.commensalism: symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed 4.ecological succession: series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time 5.mutualism: symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship 6.niche: the ecological "job and address" of a plant or animal in nature. 7.parasitism: symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it 8.pioneer species: first species to populate an area during primary succession 9.predation: interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism 10.primary succession: succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists 11.resource: any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space 12.secondary succession: succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil 13.symbiosis: relationship in which two species live closely together 1. age-structure diagram: graph of the numbers of males and females within different age groups of a population 2.biodiversity: biological diversity; the sum total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere 3.biological magnification: increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher tropic levels in a food chain or food web 4.carrying capacity: largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support 5.demographic transition: change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates 6.demography: scientific study of human populations 7.density-dependent limiting factor: limiting factor that depends on population size 8.density-independent limiting factor: limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size 9.emigration: movement of individuals out of a population 10.exponential growth: growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate 11.green revolution: introduction of intensive farming practices that lead to a substantial increase in crop yields 12.immigration: movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population 13.invasive species: plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native 14.limiting factor: factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease 15.logistic growth: growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth 16.monoculture: farming strategy in which large fields are cleared, plowed, and planted with a single, highly productive crop year after year 17.nonrenewable resources: resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes 18.population: group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area 19.population density: number of individuals per unit of area 20.predator-prey relationship: mechanism of population control in which a population is regulated by predation 21.renewable resources: resource that can regenerate quickly and that is replaceable 22.species: group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile off springs 1. Anticodon: Group of 3 bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon 2.Bacteriophage: Virus that infects bacteria. 3.Base Pairing: Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between A - T and C-G. 4.Chromatin: Protein molecule that DNA is tightly coiled around. 5.Codon: Three nucleotide sequence on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid. chain. CHAPTER 12 VOCAB 6.DNA polymerase: Enzyme that "proofreads" new DNA strands, helping to ensure perfect copies. 7.Exons: expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein. 8.Frameshift mutations: Mutation that shifts the "reading" frame by inserting or deleting a nucleotide. 9.Histones: DNA wrapped around proteins. 10.Introns: intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein. CHAPTER 12 VOCAB 11.Messenger RNA: RNA molecule that carries instructions for the assembly of amino acids. 12.Nucleotides: Piece of the DNA strand that is made of a sugar, phosphate and a nitrogenous base 13.Point mutations: Mutation that affects a single nucleotide by substitution. 14.polyploidy: having extra sets of chromosomes. 15.Promoters: enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands to make RNA. CHAPTER 12 VOCAB 16.Replication: copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA 17.Ribosomal RNA: type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosome's. 18.RNA polymerase: change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information. 19.Transcription: Process in which part of the sequence of DNA is copied. 20.Transfer RNA: type of RNA molecule which transfers amino acids to ribosomes. 21.Transformation: Process in which one strand of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes. 22.Translation: decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide CHAPTER 15 VOCAB 1. Adaptation: inherited characteristic that increases an organism chance of survival. 2. Artificial selection: selection by human for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms. 3.Common descent: principle that all living things derived from common ancestors. 4. Descent with modification: principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time. 5. Evolution: change in a kind of organism over times: process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. CHAPTER 15 VOCAB 6.Fitness: ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment. 7. Fossil: preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism. 8.Homologuous structure: structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues. 9. Struggle for existence: competition among members of a species for food, living space, and the other necessities of life. 10. Survival of the fittest: process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; ALSO CALLED NATURAL SELECTION. 11. Theory: well-test explanation that unifies a board range of observations. 12. Vestigial organ: organ that serves no useful function in an organism. Chapter 17 Paleontologists: are scientists who study fossils. Fossil Record: all the information about past life. Extinct: the species died out. Relative Dating: the age of fossil is determines by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock. Index Fossils: compare the relative ages of fossils. Half-Life: the length if time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay. Radioactive Dating: the use of half-lives to determine the age of a sample. Geologic Time Scale: to represent evolutionary time. Eras: they are the Paleozoic Era, the Mesozoic Era, and the Genozoic Era. Period: range in length from tens of millions of years to less than two million years. Proteinoid Microsphere: under certain conditions, large organic molecules can form tiny bubbles. Microfossils: unicellular prokaryotic organisms that resemble modern bacteria have been found in rocks more than 3.5 billion years old. Endosymbiotic Theory: eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms. Mass Extinction: at the end of the Paleozoic, many organisms died out. Which many types of living things became at the same time. Macroevolution: to refer to large –scale evolutionary patterns and processes that occur over long periods of time. Adaptive Radiation: fossils or living organisms show that a single speces ora small group of species has evolved, through natural selection and other processes, into diverse forms that live in different ways. Convergent Evolution: which unrelated organisms come to resemble one another. Coevolution: which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time. Punctuated Equilibrium: describe this pattern of long, stable period interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change.