* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
HEARING Audition What is Audition? Hearing What sounds do we hear the best? Sounds with the frequencies in the range corresponding to the human voice. How Sounds Travel to the Ear A sound Stimulus Energy Molecules of Air bump into the next molecules waves of compressed & expanded air Ears detect the air pressure change The vibrations are felt Ears transform the vibrating air nerve impulses Sound Waves Amplitude Strength of the sound waves Loudness Frequency Pitch The number of wavelength that pass a point in a given time which determines the pitch A tone’s experienced high or lowness Decibels How sounds are measured The absolute threshold for hearing is arbitrarily Structure of the Ear The ear is divided into the outer, middle & inner ear. Outer Ear Auditory Canal #7 Channel that sounds Waves first pass through Eardrum #8 A tight membrane that vibrates with the waves Middle Ear Bones of the middle ear = the Hammer #1, Anvil #2, Stirrup #3 which vibrate with the eardrum. Semicircular Canals #4 Inner Ear Oval window = where the stirrup connects to the cochlea. #9 Cochlea = a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses. #6 Perceiving Loudness Basilar membrane’s hair cells Cochlea and Loud Sounds Auditory nerve = nerve which sends the auditory message to the brain via the thalamus. #5 Eustachian Tube #11 The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the throat. Its purpose is to equalize middle ear pressure with environmental pressure. When your ear "pops" on a high-speed elevator or in an airplane, the reason is that the eustachian tube has opened and equalized pressure. Neural Impulse to the Brain Place Theory The theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated. Frequency Theory The theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. Hearing Loss Conduction Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea. Problems with the eardrum or three bones of the middle ear. Sensorineural Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.