Download Lecture 1

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Zulu grammar wikipedia, lookup

Spanish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Agglutination wikipedia, lookup

Pleonasm wikipedia, lookup

Latin syntax wikipedia, lookup

Modern Hebrew grammar wikipedia, lookup

Macedonian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Compound (linguistics) wikipedia, lookup

Lithuanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Portuguese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ukrainian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ojibwe grammar wikipedia, lookup

Morphology (linguistics) wikipedia, lookup

Esperanto grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Modern Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Vietnamese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Inflection wikipedia, lookup

Turkish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Swedish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Italian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Yiddish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Russian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Scottish Gaelic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Sotho parts of speech wikipedia, lookup

Old Norse morphology wikipedia, lookup

Old English grammar wikipedia, lookup

Polish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Lexical semantics wikipedia, lookup

Comparison (grammar) wikipedia, lookup

Russian declension wikipedia, lookup

Japanese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Serbo-Croatian grammar wikipedia, lookup

French grammar wikipedia, lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia, lookup

English grammar wikipedia, lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Lecture 1
what is mean Syntax :
a. the part of grammar explaining how
morphemes are put together to construct
word
B. the description of how words, phrases,
and clauses are constructed and combined in
a language.
C. are parts of words, i.e. stems, prefixes,
and suffixes. For example, un + friend + ly
contains three morphemes: a prefix un, a
stem friend, and a suffix ly
What's mean Grammar :
A. the part of grammar explaining how
morphemes are put together to construct
words
B. the description of how words, phrases,
and clauses are constructed and combined in
a language
C. the analysis of the structure of phrases
and sentences
consists of one or more phrases, what is it :
A. clause
B. phrase
C. word
consists of one or more morphemes. ,what is
it :
A. clause
B. phrase
C. word
Grammatical units are described in terms of
four factors .what are they :
A.structure, their syntactic role, their
meaning, and the way they are used in
discourse.
B. structure, their syntactic role,
C. structure
are generally considered to be the basic
elements of language:
A.Words
B. sentences
C. nothing
Different senses of the word ‘word’:
A. Orthographic words.
B. Grammatical words.
C. Lexemes
D. All the above
Lexical words. Function words.Inserts, What
are these :
A.Three major families of words
B. Different senses of the word ‘word
C. nothings
Lexical words :
A. the main carriers of in information in a
text or a speech act
B. They can be subdivided into the following
parts of speech: (nouns, lexical verbs,
adjectives, and adverbs.
C. the most numerous, and their number are
growing all the time
D. All the above
Open class :
A. Lexical words
B. Function words
Close class :
A. Function words
B. Lexical words
They are generally the words that stressed
most in speech.:
A. Lexical words.
B. Function words.
C. Inserts.
can be categorized in terms of parts of
speech such as prepositions, coordinators,
auxiliary verbs, and pronouns.:
A. Lexical words.
B. Function words.
C. Inserts
Function words:
A. They usually indicate meaning
relationships and help us interpret units
containing lexical words, by showing how the
units are related to each other
B. Function words belong to (closed classes),
which have a very limited and fixed
membership.
C. Individual function words tend to occur
frequently, and in almost any type of text
D. All the above
are found mainly in spoken language.. , what
is it :
A. Lexical words.
B. Function words.
C. Inserts
Inserts, What are they :
A. do not form an integral part of the a
syntactic structure, but tend to inserted
freely in a text.
B. They are often marked off by a break in
intonation in speech, or by a punctuation
mark in writing: e.g. Well, we made it.
C. They generally carry emotional and
discourse meanings, such as oh
D. Inserts are generally simple in form,
though they often have an atypical
pronunciation
K. All the Above
contains a limited number of members, and
new members cannot be easily added:
A.Closed class
B. Open class
indefinitely large, and can be readily
extended by users of the language:
A.Closed class
B. Open class
structure of words : morphology what are
they :
A. Inflection
B.Derivation
C.compounding
D. All the above
Lexical words can take inflectional suffixes to
signal meanings and roles which are
important to their word class:
A. Inflection
B.Derivation
C.compounding
like inflection, usually involve adding an affix,
i.e. a morpheme attached to the beginning of
a word (a prefix) or to the end of a word ( a
suffix).:
A. Inflection
B. Derivation
C. compounding
Inflection and derivation result in complex
words, with a stem plus one or more affixes.
Another form of derivation:
A. Inflection
B.Derivation
C.compounding
Lecture 2
There are four main classes of lexical words:
A. nouns, lexical verbs, adjectives, and
adverbs
B. nouns, lexical verbs
C. function words
Words such as book, girl, gold, information
are:
A. common nouns
B. proper nouns
C. just nouns
Words such as Sarah, Oslo, Microsoft
(names):
A. common nouns
B. proper nouns
C. just nouns
Morphological: Nouns:
A.have inflectional suffixes for plural
numbers
B. are uncountable, and cannot have a plural
form (e.g. gold
C. nouns with derivational suffixes (e.g.
sing+ er, friend+ship
D. All the above
Syntactic: Nouns:
A. can occur as the head of a noun phrase
B. common nouns such as book and person
can be modified by many kinds of words
C. Proper nouns like Sarah, rarely have any
modifiers
D. All the above
Semantic: Nouns:
A. nothings
B. commonly refer to concrete, physical
entities ,can also denote abstract entities
what is lexical verbs :
A. Auxiliary verbs like can and will
B.The primary verbs be, have and do
)‫يعني كلاهما‬C. both of it (
Morphological: Lexical verbs:
A. have different forms signaling tense (
present & past), aspect ( perfect &
progressive), and voice ( active & passive)
B. Verb lexemes quite often have a complex
form with more than one morpheme
C. both of it
Syntactic: Lexical verbs :
A. frequently occur on their own
B. as a single-word verb phrase acting as the
central part of the clause
C. They also occur in the final or main verb
position of verb phrase
D. All the above
: Semantic: Lexical verbs
A. denote actions, processes, and states of
affairs that happen or exist in time
B. They also define the role of human and
non-human participants in such actions
C. both of it
Words such as dark, heavy, eager, and guilty
:
A. verbs
B. nouns
C. adjective
adjectives can take inflectional suffixes –er:
A. Comparative
B. superlative
adjectives can take inflectional suffixes –est:
A. Comparative
B. superlative
adjectives e.g. (color-blind), (home-made :
A. Adjectives
B. Compound adjectives
Syntactic: Adjectives :
A. can occur as the head of an adjective
phrase: ( very dark)
B. Adjectives and adjective phrases are most
commonly used as modifiers preceding the
head of a noun phrase
C. both of it
Semantic: Adjectives :
A. describe the qualities of people, things,
and abstractions: a heavy box
B. Many adjectives are gradable
C. That is, they can be compared and
modified for the degree or level of the
quality: heavier
D. All the above
Words such as now, there, usually, and
finally what is it :
A. nouns
B. adverbs
C. adjective
are formed from adjectives by adding the
suffix –ly:
A. nouns
B. adverbs
C. adjective
Syntactic: Adverbs :
A. occur as head of adverb phrases: ( very
noisily)
B. with or without their own modifiers
C. are often used as modifiers of an adjective
or another adverb: (really old)
D. they can act as adverbials in the clause
K. All the above
Semantic:Adverbs :
A. As modifiers, adverbs most often express
the degree of a following adjective or adverb
B. As elements of clauses ( adverbials),
C. both of it
adverbs and adverb phrases have a wide
range of meanings :
A. They can modify an action, process, or
state, by expressing such notions as time,
place, and manner
B. They can convey the speaker’s or writer’s
attitude towards the information in the rest
of the clause
C. They can express a connection with what
was said earlier
D. All the above
are clearly the most common types of words
overall ,what are they :
A. Nouns and verbs
B. adjective
Adjectives are linked to :
A. nouns
B. verbs
Adverbs, on the other hand, are linked to :
A. nouns
B. verbs