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Kingdom Fungi • Eukaryotes • Cell wall made of chitin, a carbohydrate (same compound as exoskeleton of insects!!!!!) • Most multicellular: mushrooms, molds • Some unicellular: yeasts • Heterotrophs: - decomposers - some parasites • Body made is made of filaments called hyphae • Reproduce using spores Characteristics of Fungi • The body of a fungus is called a mycelium --a matt of thin, tangled threads. • The individual thread like strands of cells are called hyphae. • Cell wall made of chitin a carbohydrate (same compound as exoskeleton of insects!!!!!) Hyphae are one cell thick but many cells long Reproduction - Mushrooms reproduce using spores - Spores are small reproductive cells released from the gills - Mushrooms can also reproduce when hyphae break off and grow on their own Most fungi are decomposers. Break down organic material like dead animals, plants, etc. They feed by releasing digestive enzymes that break down organic compounds. The cells (hyphae) then absorb the digested compounds. Some are parasites: Feed on other living organisms • Athlete’s foot • Candida albicans (vaginal and mouth yeast infections) • Tinea pedis • Candida albicans (Athlete’s foot) (yeast infection) • Usually kept in check by competition with bacteria. This balance can be upset by antibiotics that kill the bacteria Useful Fungi Some Fungi produce antibiotics - Penicillium notatum makes Penicillin (antibiotic) Grows naturally in some fruits -oranges Fungi used to make cheese: Blue Cheese: Penicillium roquefortii is used to make blue cheeses: Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton, etc. The blue ‘stuff’ are spores: You eat millions in one bite! Yeast: used to make bread, wine, beer - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baking). Unicellular - Yeasts use sugars as a source of energy during respiration. - Their waste products are CO2 and alcohol Lichens • Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism: -Algae (Protista) or Cyanobacteria (Eubacteria) What lichens are really made of Some mushrooms contain deadly toxins. Don’t touch unknown mushrooms! Hallucinogens in some (high doses deadly) Some poisonous Ohio mushrooms: Importance of fungi to humans -- Diseases—e.g., yeast infections with Candida cause thrush --Food spoilage—zygomycete bread molds; ergot molds on wet grains (source of LSD; likely cause of witch hunts in Salem, MA/Europe) cause hallucinations. --Plant pathogens like molds, smuts, rusts special hyphae to invade living plant tissue are called haustoria. ++Mychorrhizae allow more robust plant growth ++Succession restores soil (as after volcano erupts) ++Primary decomposers on land ++Food sources – mushrooms ++Fermentation of alcoholic beverages (alcoholic fermentation by yeasts) The cellulase enzyme allows fungi to act as a decomposer, essential in every food web. The outer ring on this food web diagram shows how decomposers link all levels of the food web. Fossils of fungi are rare because… p. .. io he i ra bi lit y to po sit rc om he i c. t fo r n cie fs pe ko lac he ir b. t 0% m i.. . sd e. an c ar ap pe te la ei r th a. 0% of s. . . 0% . 0% d. t a. their late appearance on the Geologic Time Scale b. their lack of species diversity c. their composition of soft materials d. their ability to form protective spores All fungi a. make their food. b. produce mushrooms. c. absorb their food. d. have chlorophyll. 0% ha v ec hl b or op h th ei r y.. . f. . . 0% ab so r pr o du ce m ir fo o th e ak e m 0% us hr o. .. ... 0% Fungi do NOT di g ph o ou t ry 0% 0% 0% to sy es nt tf he oo sis d . ou t sid gr ow e th on ei . .. th ei rf oo d. ab d so so ur rb ce fo . od th ro ug h ... 0% Ca r a. Carry out photosynthesis. b. digest food outside their bodies. c. grow on their food source. d. absorb food through their cell walls. Fungi resemble plants in that they both always a. have stems. b. are multicellular. c. grow from the ground. d. have cell walls. ce ll w d. h th e fro m w gr o av e gr o ce ul ti m ar e 0% al un d. r. llu la te m es ha v 0% ls. 0% s. 0% Stinkhorns, are mushrooms that mimic the odor of rotting meat. What do you think is the main mechanism or strategy used by this fungi to disperse its spores? a. wind. b. snow. c. birds. d. flies. s. s. ird c. b w 0% d. fli e 0% . 0% b. sn o a. w in d. 0% Bread rises because fermentation by yeast produces spores. water. rhizoids. carbon dioxide. 0% .. de . ox i zo i ca r bo n di rh i at e w 0% ds . 0% r. 0% sp or es . a. b. c. d. Which statement about Penicillium is correct 0% 0% d. It ca u se s a. .. s.. . st he se s b. .. 0% b. It ca u a. It pr o du c es ... 0% c. It i a. It produces mushrooms. b. It causes bread to rise. c. It is the source of an antibiotic. d. It causes athlete’s foot. An important role of fungi in an ecosystem is a. photosynthesis. b. making alcohol c. breaking down dead organisms. d. killing bacteria. 0% in gb ill in g ak br e d. k do w lco n ... ac . .. 0% ho l 0% ga m ak in ph ot o sy nt he s is. .. 0% The breakdown of dead organisms is accelerated by the fungal production of a. alcohols. b. digestive enzymes. c. acids. d. recycled nutrients. 0% nu .. . d yc le ec d. r st iv ige b. d c. a ee ... ho l co al a. 0% c id s. 0% s. 0% The growth of yeasts in moist regions of the body is kept in check by competition from a. antibiotics. b. rusts. c. bacteria. d. mildews. 0% s. 0% ew d. m ild ba c te r ia . 0% ru st s. an t ib io tic s. 0% Which statement about lichens is correct? 0% .. l. se d of so i ro w co m po on ly e re ya he c. T he yg ot m ak an n yc he b. T 0% in th e . an t. er to l ot en ar ey Th a. 0% .. 0% d. T a. They are not tolerant of harsh conditions. b. They cannot make their own food. c. They grow only in soil. d. They are composed of an alga or a cyanobacterium and a fungus living together.