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Transcript
Kingdom Fungi
• Eukaryotes
• Cell wall made of chitin, a carbohydrate
(same compound as exoskeleton of insects!!!!!)
• Most multicellular: mushrooms, molds
• Some unicellular: yeasts
• Heterotrophs: - decomposers
- some parasites
• Body made is made of filaments called hyphae
• Reproduce using spores
Characteristics of Fungi
• The body of a fungus is called a mycelium --a matt of thin,
tangled threads.
• The individual thread like strands of cells are called
hyphae.
• Cell wall made of chitin a carbohydrate (same compound
as exoskeleton of insects!!!!!)
Hyphae are one cell thick but many cells long
Reproduction
- Mushrooms
reproduce using
spores
- Spores are small
reproductive cells
released from the
gills
- Mushrooms can
also reproduce
when hyphae
break off and grow
on their own
Most fungi are decomposers.
Break down organic material like dead
animals, plants, etc.
They feed by releasing digestive enzymes
that break down organic compounds. The
cells (hyphae) then absorb the digested
compounds.
Some are parasites: Feed on other
living organisms
• Athlete’s foot
• Candida albicans (vaginal and mouth
yeast infections)
• Tinea pedis
• Candida albicans
(Athlete’s foot) (yeast infection)
• Usually kept in check by
competition with bacteria.
This balance can be upset by
antibiotics that kill the bacteria
Useful Fungi
Some Fungi produce antibiotics
-
Penicillium notatum makes Penicillin (antibiotic)
Grows naturally in some fruits -oranges
Fungi used to make cheese:
Blue Cheese: Penicillium roquefortii is used to
make blue cheeses: Roquefort, Gorgonzola,
Stilton, etc.
The blue ‘stuff’ are spores: You eat millions in one bite!
Yeast: used to make bread, wine, beer
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baking). Unicellular
- Yeasts use sugars as a source of energy during
respiration.
- Their waste products are CO2 and alcohol
Lichens
• Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a
photosynthetic organism:
-Algae (Protista) or Cyanobacteria (Eubacteria)
What lichens are really made of
Some mushrooms contain deadly toxins.
Don’t touch unknown mushrooms!
Hallucinogens in some (high doses deadly)
Some poisonous Ohio mushrooms:
Importance of fungi to humans
-- Diseases—e.g., yeast infections
with Candida cause thrush
--Food spoilage—zygomycete bread
molds; ergot molds on wet grains
(source of LSD; likely cause of
witch hunts in Salem, MA/Europe)
cause hallucinations.
--Plant pathogens like molds, smuts,
rusts
special hyphae to invade living
plant tissue are called haustoria.
++Mychorrhizae allow more
robust plant growth
++Succession restores soil
(as after volcano erupts)
++Primary decomposers on
land
++Food sources –
mushrooms
++Fermentation of alcoholic
beverages (alcoholic
fermentation by yeasts)
The cellulase enzyme allows fungi to act as a
decomposer, essential in every food web. The
outer ring on this food web diagram shows how
decomposers link all levels of the food web.
Fossils of fungi are rare
because…
p.
..
io
he
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ra
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lit
y
to
po
sit
rc
om
he
i
c.
t
fo
r
n
cie
fs
pe
ko
lac
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ir
b.
t
0%
m
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.
sd
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an
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ar
ap
pe
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th
a.
0%
of
s. .
.
0%
.
0%
d.
t
a. their late appearance
on the Geologic Time
Scale
b. their lack of species
diversity
c. their composition of
soft materials
d. their ability to form
protective spores
All fungi
a. make their food.
b. produce
mushrooms.
c. absorb their food.
d. have chlorophyll.
0%
ha
v
ec
hl
b
or
op
h
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.
f. .
.
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ir
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us
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..
...
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Fungi do NOT
di
g
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o
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t
ry
0%
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tf
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oo
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Ca
r
a. Carry out
photosynthesis.
b. digest food outside
their bodies.
c. grow on their food
source.
d. absorb food
through their cell
walls.
Fungi resemble plants in that
they both always
a. have stems.
b. are multicellular.
c. grow from the
ground.
d. have cell walls.
ce
ll w
d.
h
th
e
fro
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w
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un
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v
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ls.
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s.
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Stinkhorns, are mushrooms that mimic the odor of rotting
meat. What do you think is the main mechanism or
strategy used by this fungi to disperse its spores?
a. wind.
b. snow.
c. birds.
d. flies.
s.
s.
ird
c.
b
w
0%
d.
fli
e
0%
.
0%
b.
sn
o
a.
w
in
d.
0%
Bread rises because fermentation by yeast
produces
spores.
water.
rhizoids.
carbon dioxide.
0%
..
de
.
ox
i
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i
ca
r
bo
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di
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at
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w
0%
ds
.
0%
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0%
sp
or
es
.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which statement about Penicillium
is correct
0%
0%
d.
It
ca
u
se
s
a.
..
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.
st
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se
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b.
..
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b.
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a.
It
pr
o
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c
es
...
0%
c.
It
i
a. It produces
mushrooms.
b. It causes bread to
rise.
c. It is the source of
an antibiotic.
d. It causes athlete’s
foot.
An important role of fungi in an
ecosystem is
a. photosynthesis.
b. making alcohol
c. breaking down
dead organisms.
d. killing bacteria.
0%
in
gb
ill
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g
ak
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e
d.
k
do
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. ..
0%
ho
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ga
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ot
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..
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The breakdown of dead organisms is
accelerated by the fungal production of
a. alcohols.
b. digestive enzymes.
c. acids.
d. recycled nutrients.
0%
nu
.. .
d
yc
le
ec
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r
st
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ige
b.
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c.
a
ee
...
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al
a.
0%
c id
s.
0%
s.
0%
The growth of yeasts in moist regions of the
body is kept in check by competition from
a. antibiotics.
b. rusts.
c. bacteria.
d. mildews.
0%
s.
0%
ew
d.
m
ild
ba
c
te
r
ia
.
0%
ru
st
s.
an
t ib
io
tic
s.
0%
Which statement about lichens is
correct?
0%
..
l.
se
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of
so
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ro
w
co
m
po
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ly
e
re
ya
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c.
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b.
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ar
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Th
a.
0%
..
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d.
T
a. They are not tolerant
of harsh conditions.
b. They cannot make
their own food.
c. They grow only in soil.
d. They are composed
of an alga or a
cyanobacterium and a
fungus living together.