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Nutrition 101
Mrs. Gowing
PAF 2OX-01
Let’s Test your
 What is nutrition?
 What is a nutrient?
Nutrition: The study of food.
The process by which your body takes in
and uses food.
Essential Nutrients: The chemicals contained in
food that we eat.
No single food contains all of the essential nutrients
that we need. Therefore, a variety of foods need to
be eaten.
The 6 Essential
#1 - Water
 Water is the most essential nutrient that the body
 45-60% of your body weight is water. Exact
percentage depends on your percentage of body
fat. More body fat means less water in the body.
 When you exercise, your body loses water in the
form of sweat so you should continue to drink
water when you exercise (and throughout the
 8-10 glasses of water are recommended a day
for the average person.
#2 - Carbs
 Our main source of energy. They fuel the
body during exercise.
 58% of our daily calories should come from
carbs. Examples include fruits, vegetables,
bread, rice, cereals etc.
 Canada’s Food Guide Recommends the
Following: Teenage girls should consume 7
servings of vegetables and fruits a day.
 What fruits and veggies should teenage
girls consume more of?
Veggies and Fruit
- Eat at least one dark green and one orange
vegetable each day.
- Broccoli, Romaine lettuce, spinach, carrots, sweet
potatoes and winter squash are excellent sources
of carbohydrates.
- Choose vegetables and fruit prepared with little of
no added fat, sugar or salt. Vegetables should be
steamed, baked or stir-fried instead of deep –
- Have vegetables and fruit more often than juice.
Grain Products
 Another good source of carbohydrates.
 Canada’s Food Guide Recommends that teenage
girls consume 6 servings of grain products each
 Make at least half of your grain products WHOLE
GRAIN each day.
 Sources: barley, brown rice, oats, quinoa and wild
rice, whole grain (or multi grain) breads, oatmeal
and pasta.
 If you are choosing a whole wheat product, make
sure the phrase “100% whole wheat” appears on
the package, not simply “whole wheat”
What is Fiber?
A word About Fiber
 Dietary fiber (aka roughage), is the indigestible
portion of plant foods that pushes food through the
digestive system, absorbing water and easing the
excretion of wastes from the body (aka #2).
 Two types: Soluble (able to dissolve in water) or
insoluble (not able to dissolve in water).
 Soluble fiber, like all fiber, cannot be digested.
But it does change as it passes through the
digestive tract, being transformed by bacteria
there. Soluble fiber also absorbs water to
become a gel like substance that passes
through the body.
 Insoluble fiber passes through the body largely
Fiber cont.
 Soluble fiber is found in varying quantities in all
plant foods, including:
 Legumes (peas, soybeans, and other beans)
 Oats
 Some Fruits: prunes, plums, berries, bananas, and
the insides of apples and pears
 Some veggies: broccoli, carrots, potatoes, sweet
potatoes, and onions (skins of these vegetables
are sources of insoluble fiber)
Fiber cont.
Sources of insoluble fiber include:
 whole grain foods
 Wheat and corn bran
 nuts and seeds
 Potato skins
 flax seed (will absorb faster if they are of the
grounded form)
 Some veggies: green beans, cauliflower, zucchini,
and celery.
 The skins of some fruits, including tomatoes
Fiber Cont.
 Eating fiber has many benefits for your health. The
consumption of soluble fiber has been shown to
protect you from developing heart disease by
reducing your cholesterol levels. The consumption of
insoluble fiber reduces your risk of developing
constipation, colitis (inflammation of the colon),
colon cancer, and hemorrhoids.
#3 - Fats
 Another source of energy for the body.
 30% of our daily calories should come from fat.
 We need to maintain a certain amount of fat to
insulate the inner systems of our bodies, and to
help process vitamins and minerals.
 Sources of good fats (like Omega 3’s) include:
deep water fish (such as wild salmon and tuna),
walnuts, ground flax seeds, fortified drinks and
eggs etc.
 Note - Some people are scared to eat tuna
because of its mercury content. But tuna is a
good source of protein and fat. Choose “Light”
Tuna because it contains less mercury than
“White” Tuna.
What is
 Cholesterol: Fat-Containing substances in the
blood which, when present in excessive
amounts, can result in serious damage to the
blood vessels.
 Good food habits, regular exercise and low
amounts of stress can help to
decrease/manage cholesterol in the blood.
 Smoking, excessive alcohol intake, and being
overweight can increase blood fat levels.
Fats cont.
Types of fat:
1) Unsaturated – liquid at room temperature. Found mostly
in plant foods. Does not raise blood cholesterol levels.
Sources: soft margarines, mayonnaise, cooking oils
(canola, olive and soybean), salad dressings, peanut
butter, avocados, cashews, almonds, fish etc.
Canada’s Food Guide suggests that everyone include a
small amount (2-3 Tbsp) of unsaturated each day.
Unsaturated fats are a better source of fat than saturated
and/or trans fats, but remember that any type of fat can
supply excess calories and weight gain, which is why
we're advised to eat fat in moderate amounts.
Types of Fat cont.
2) Saturated – solid at room temperature
 Sources: butter, hard margarine, shortening, meat,
poultry, cheese, dairy products, egg yolks,
 Saturated fats are considered to be less healthful
and intake of these should be kept low. Too much
saturated fat can result in elevated blood
cholesterol levels, which is a risk factor for heart
 Choose “extra lean beef” more often and trim your
chicken, steaks etc. of fat and skin.
Trans Fats
 3) Trans fats give a desirable taste and texture to
food and provide stability at high temperatures
and improved shelf life.
 Trans fats are unsaturated fatty acids that are
formed when vegetable oils are processed
(partially hydrogenated) to make shortenings,
margarines and oils for use in baking, frying or
Trans Fats cont.
 Trans fat also occurs naturally in small
amounts in many foods (e.g., beef, veal, lamb
and foods containing milk fat, such as butter,
whole milk, cream, cheese and ice cream).
 Trans fats, similar to saturated fats, raise blood
cholesterol levels more than unsaturated fats.
 While dietary guidance for trans intake is
evolving, a recent recommendation is to keep
trans fat intake as low as possible while
consuming a nutritionally adequate diet.
Tips to Prevent The Intake
of Excess Fat
Meat and Alternatives:
- Teenage girls should consume 2 servings/day
(according to the Food Guide).
- We are encouraged to eat meat alternatives more
often (ex. beans, lentils and tofu).
- Eat at least two Food Guide Servings of fish each
- Use cooking methods such as roasting, baking or
poaching that require little or no added fat.
- Eat processed meats and sausages less often and
choose those lower in salt (sodium) and fat.
Tips cont.
Milk and Alternatives:
- Teenage girls should consume 3-4 servings of
these each day.
- We are encouraged to have 2 cups of milk every
day for adequate amounts of Vitamin D. (Drink
soy milk with Vitamin D if you don’t like milk).
- Select lower fat milk alternatives. Yogurt, cheese
etc. can very good for you, but be sure to check
the labels. Look for low fat, low sugar, low calorie
#4 - Proteins
 Calorie: A unit of measurement for the
energy value in our food.
 Metabolism: The rate at which your body
burns calories. (burning fire analogy)
 Proteins help muscles and other body
tissues to grow and repair. The more
muscle we have, the faster our
metabolism becomes. Therefore, we are
able to burn calories at a faster rate even
when we are not exercising.
Proteins cont.
 13% of our daily caloric intake should be
 Some Sources of protein: egg whites,
chicken, fish, lean (or extra lean) beef (red
meat), beans and skim milk. Even
chocolate milk is a good source of protein
(especially in the 20 minutes following a
 Discussion: Protein Bars and Shakes. Do
teen girls need to take them?
#5 - Vitamins
 They provide energy to the body and assist with
chemical reactions within cells.
 Examples?
 A, D, E, K, (stored in fat tissue in the body)
 B, C, (not stored in body. They are excreted)
 Discussion: Multivitamins (Discuss with your
 Raw foods contain the most enzymes, so we
should aim towards having an increasing portion
of our diet uncooked.
#6 - Minerals
 Minerals regulate processes within the body
(create hormones, teeth, fluids etc.)
 Examples include: calcium, iron, sodium (salt)
 High sodium levels = increased blood pressure
 Main sources of sodium: table salt. Reduce
your salt intake by using spices, herbs or
lemon juice instead.
 Low iron levels are a common problem in
women, but bad because it can lead to anemia.
Minerals cont.
 Main sources of iron: red meat (once a week),
dark poultry, liver, oysters, whole grain cereals,
peas, beans, lentils.
 Low calcium is bad because it can lead to low
bone density and osteoporosis.
 Osteoporosis: brittleness of the bones, caused
by a lack of calcium.
 Main sources of calcium: milk, broccoli,
salmon, dark-green leafy vegetables, yogurt,
fortified orange juice.
What are
 Antioxidants are nutrients in our foods which can
prevent or slow down damage to our body.
 When our body cells use oxygen, they naturally
produce free radicals (by-products) which can cause
damage. Antioxidants act as "free radical
scavengers" and hence prevent and repair damage
done by these free radicals. A recent study
conducted by researchers from London found that 5
servings of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of
stroke by 25 percent. Antioxidants may also
enhance immune defense and therefore lower the
risk of cancer and infection.
Antioxidants cont.
 Common sources include: Vitamins A, C, E and
 Vitamin A is in carrots, squash, broccoli, sweet
potatoes, tomatoes, cantaloupe, peaches etc.
 Vitamin C can be found in citrus fruits, green peppers,
broccoli, green leafy vegetables, strawberries and
 Vitamin E can be found in nuts, seeds, whole grains,
green leafy vegetables etc.
 Selenium can be found in fish and shellfish, red meat,
grains, eggs, chicken and garlic.
 Pomegranate, purple grapes, red wine, soy,
cranberries, tea, watermelon, grapefruit, kiwis and
oatmeal are also good sources of antioxidants.
What else does
Canada’s Food Guide
 Eat breakfast everyday!
 Limit foods and beverages high in calories,
fat, sugar, or salt (sodium) such as cakes,
cupcakes, doughnuts, chocolate, candies,
cookies, granola bars, muffins, ice cream,
french fries, chips, nachos, salty snacks,
pop, sports drinks and sweetened hot or
cold drinks.
Recommendations cont.
 Compare the Nutrition Facts table on food labels to
choose products that contain less fat, saturated fat,
trans fat, sugar and sodium.
 Be active every day! 1.5 hours a day of moderate
physical activity/ day.
The Benefits of Eating
Well and Being Active
 Better overall health
 Lower risk of disease
 A healthy body weight
 Feeling and Looking Better
 More energy
 Stronger muscles and bones.
Live Well!