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Nutrition 101 Mrs. Gowing PAF 2OX-01 Let’s Test your Memory! What is nutrition? What is a nutrient? Definitions Nutrition: The study of food. The process by which your body takes in and uses food. Essential Nutrients: The chemicals contained in food that we eat. No single food contains all of the essential nutrients that we need. Therefore, a variety of foods need to be eaten. The 6 Essential Nutrients 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Water Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals #1 - Water Water is the most essential nutrient that the body needs. 45-60% of your body weight is water. Exact percentage depends on your percentage of body fat. More body fat means less water in the body. When you exercise, your body loses water in the form of sweat so you should continue to drink water when you exercise (and throughout the day). 8-10 glasses of water are recommended a day for the average person. #2 - Carbs Our main source of energy. They fuel the body during exercise. 58% of our daily calories should come from carbs. Examples include fruits, vegetables, bread, rice, cereals etc. Canada’s Food Guide Recommends the Following: Teenage girls should consume 7 servings of vegetables and fruits a day. What fruits and veggies should teenage girls consume more of? Veggies and Fruit - Eat at least one dark green and one orange vegetable each day. - Broccoli, Romaine lettuce, spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes and winter squash are excellent sources of carbohydrates. - Choose vegetables and fruit prepared with little of no added fat, sugar or salt. Vegetables should be steamed, baked or stir-fried instead of deep – fried. - Have vegetables and fruit more often than juice. Grain Products Another good source of carbohydrates. Canada’s Food Guide Recommends that teenage girls consume 6 servings of grain products each day. Make at least half of your grain products WHOLE GRAIN each day. Sources: barley, brown rice, oats, quinoa and wild rice, whole grain (or multi grain) breads, oatmeal and pasta. If you are choosing a whole wheat product, make sure the phrase “100% whole wheat” appears on the package, not simply “whole wheat” What is Fiber? A word About Fiber Dietary fiber (aka roughage), is the indigestible portion of plant foods that pushes food through the digestive system, absorbing water and easing the excretion of wastes from the body (aka #2). Two types: Soluble (able to dissolve in water) or insoluble (not able to dissolve in water). Soluble fiber, like all fiber, cannot be digested. But it does change as it passes through the digestive tract, being transformed by bacteria there. Soluble fiber also absorbs water to become a gel like substance that passes through the body. Insoluble fiber passes through the body largely unchanged. Fiber cont. Soluble fiber is found in varying quantities in all plant foods, including: Legumes (peas, soybeans, and other beans) Oats Some Fruits: prunes, plums, berries, bananas, and the insides of apples and pears Some veggies: broccoli, carrots, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and onions (skins of these vegetables are sources of insoluble fiber) Fiber cont. Sources of insoluble fiber include: whole grain foods Wheat and corn bran nuts and seeds Potato skins flax seed (will absorb faster if they are of the grounded form) Some veggies: green beans, cauliflower, zucchini, and celery. The skins of some fruits, including tomatoes Fiber Cont. Eating fiber has many benefits for your health. The consumption of soluble fiber has been shown to protect you from developing heart disease by reducing your cholesterol levels. The consumption of insoluble fiber reduces your risk of developing constipation, colitis (inflammation of the colon), colon cancer, and hemorrhoids. #3 - Fats Another source of energy for the body. 30% of our daily calories should come from fat. We need to maintain a certain amount of fat to insulate the inner systems of our bodies, and to help process vitamins and minerals. Sources of good fats (like Omega 3’s) include: deep water fish (such as wild salmon and tuna), walnuts, ground flax seeds, fortified drinks and eggs etc. Note - Some people are scared to eat tuna because of its mercury content. But tuna is a good source of protein and fat. Choose “Light” Tuna because it contains less mercury than “White” Tuna. What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol Cholesterol: Fat-Containing substances in the blood which, when present in excessive amounts, can result in serious damage to the blood vessels. Good food habits, regular exercise and low amounts of stress can help to decrease/manage cholesterol in the blood. Smoking, excessive alcohol intake, and being overweight can increase blood fat levels. Fats cont. Types of fat: 1) Unsaturated – liquid at room temperature. Found mostly in plant foods. Does not raise blood cholesterol levels. Sources: soft margarines, mayonnaise, cooking oils (canola, olive and soybean), salad dressings, peanut butter, avocados, cashews, almonds, fish etc. Canada’s Food Guide suggests that everyone include a small amount (2-3 Tbsp) of unsaturated each day. Unsaturated fats are a better source of fat than saturated and/or trans fats, but remember that any type of fat can supply excess calories and weight gain, which is why we're advised to eat fat in moderate amounts. Types of Fat cont. 2) Saturated – solid at room temperature Sources: butter, hard margarine, shortening, meat, poultry, cheese, dairy products, egg yolks, chocolate. Saturated fats are considered to be less healthful and intake of these should be kept low. Too much saturated fat can result in elevated blood cholesterol levels, which is a risk factor for heart disease. Choose “extra lean beef” more often and trim your chicken, steaks etc. of fat and skin. Trans Fats 3) Trans fats give a desirable taste and texture to food and provide stability at high temperatures and improved shelf life. Trans fats are unsaturated fatty acids that are formed when vegetable oils are processed (partially hydrogenated) to make shortenings, margarines and oils for use in baking, frying or cooking. Trans Fats cont. Trans fat also occurs naturally in small amounts in many foods (e.g., beef, veal, lamb and foods containing milk fat, such as butter, whole milk, cream, cheese and ice cream). Trans fats, similar to saturated fats, raise blood cholesterol levels more than unsaturated fats. While dietary guidance for trans intake is evolving, a recent recommendation is to keep trans fat intake as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. Tips to Prevent The Intake of Excess Fat Meat and Alternatives: - Teenage girls should consume 2 servings/day (according to the Food Guide). - We are encouraged to eat meat alternatives more often (ex. beans, lentils and tofu). - Eat at least two Food Guide Servings of fish each week. - Use cooking methods such as roasting, baking or poaching that require little or no added fat. - Eat processed meats and sausages less often and choose those lower in salt (sodium) and fat. Tips cont. Milk and Alternatives: - Teenage girls should consume 3-4 servings of these each day. - We are encouraged to have 2 cups of milk every day for adequate amounts of Vitamin D. (Drink soy milk with Vitamin D if you don’t like milk). - Select lower fat milk alternatives. Yogurt, cheese etc. can very good for you, but be sure to check the labels. Look for low fat, low sugar, low calorie options. #4 - Proteins Calorie: A unit of measurement for the energy value in our food. Metabolism: The rate at which your body burns calories. (burning fire analogy) Proteins help muscles and other body tissues to grow and repair. The more muscle we have, the faster our metabolism becomes. Therefore, we are able to burn calories at a faster rate even when we are not exercising. Proteins cont. 13% of our daily caloric intake should be proteins. Some Sources of protein: egg whites, chicken, fish, lean (or extra lean) beef (red meat), beans and skim milk. Even chocolate milk is a good source of protein (especially in the 20 minutes following a workout). Discussion: Protein Bars and Shakes. Do teen girls need to take them? #5 - Vitamins They provide energy to the body and assist with chemical reactions within cells. Examples? A, D, E, K, (stored in fat tissue in the body) B, C, (not stored in body. They are excreted) Discussion: Multivitamins (Discuss with your doctor) Raw foods contain the most enzymes, so we should aim towards having an increasing portion of our diet uncooked. #6 - Minerals Minerals regulate processes within the body (create hormones, teeth, fluids etc.) Examples include: calcium, iron, sodium (salt) etc. High sodium levels = increased blood pressure Main sources of sodium: table salt. Reduce your salt intake by using spices, herbs or lemon juice instead. Low iron levels are a common problem in women, but bad because it can lead to anemia. Minerals cont. Main sources of iron: red meat (once a week), dark poultry, liver, oysters, whole grain cereals, peas, beans, lentils. Low calcium is bad because it can lead to low bone density and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis: brittleness of the bones, caused by a lack of calcium. Main sources of calcium: milk, broccoli, salmon, dark-green leafy vegetables, yogurt, fortified orange juice. What are Antioxidants? Antioxidants Antioxidants are nutrients in our foods which can prevent or slow down damage to our body. When our body cells use oxygen, they naturally produce free radicals (by-products) which can cause damage. Antioxidants act as "free radical scavengers" and hence prevent and repair damage done by these free radicals. A recent study conducted by researchers from London found that 5 servings of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of stroke by 25 percent. Antioxidants may also enhance immune defense and therefore lower the risk of cancer and infection. Antioxidants cont. Common sources include: Vitamins A, C, E and Selenium. Vitamin A is in carrots, squash, broccoli, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, cantaloupe, peaches etc. Vitamin C can be found in citrus fruits, green peppers, broccoli, green leafy vegetables, strawberries and tomatoes. Vitamin E can be found in nuts, seeds, whole grains, green leafy vegetables etc. Selenium can be found in fish and shellfish, red meat, grains, eggs, chicken and garlic. Pomegranate, purple grapes, red wine, soy, cranberries, tea, watermelon, grapefruit, kiwis and oatmeal are also good sources of antioxidants. What else does Canada’s Food Guide Recommend? Eat breakfast everyday! Limit foods and beverages high in calories, fat, sugar, or salt (sodium) such as cakes, cupcakes, doughnuts, chocolate, candies, cookies, granola bars, muffins, ice cream, french fries, chips, nachos, salty snacks, pop, sports drinks and sweetened hot or cold drinks. Recommendations cont. Compare the Nutrition Facts table on food labels to choose products that contain less fat, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar and sodium. Be active every day! 1.5 hours a day of moderate physical activity/ day. The Benefits of Eating Well and Being Active Better overall health Lower risk of disease A healthy body weight Feeling and Looking Better More energy Stronger muscles and bones. QUESTIONS??? Live Well!