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Transcript
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (U ncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Biomes and ocean currents
Deserts of the
world
1) Sonoran Desert, 2) Patagonian Desert, 3) Atacama Desert, 4) the Sahel drought region, 5) the Sahara Desert, 6) the
Namibian desert lands, 7) the Indus Valley, 8) the Taklimakan Desert, 9) the Gobi Desert, and 10) the Lake Eyre basin (Tirari
Desert)
Deserts of the world
Africa
Bayuda Desert · Chalbi Desert · Danakil Desert · Eastern Desert · Ferio Desert · Kalahari Desert ·
Libyan Desert · Namib Desert · Nubian Desert · Nyiri Desert · Richtersveld · Sahara · Ténéré ·
White Desert
Antarctica
Antarctica
Asia
Aral Karakum · Badain Jaran Desert · Betpak-Dala · Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert · Gobi Desert ·
Hami Desert · Indus Valley Desert · Karakum Desert · Kharan Desert · Kumtag Desert · Kumtagh Desert · Kyzyl Kum · Lop Desert · Ordos Desert · Qaidam · Registan Desert · SaryesikAtyrau Desert · Taklamakan Desert · Tengger Desert · Thal Desert · Thar-Cholistan Desert ·
Tottori Sand Dunes · Ustyurt Plateau
Australia
Gibson Desert · Great Sandy Desert · Great Victoria Desert · Little Sandy Desert · Nullarbor
Plain · Painted Desert · Pedirka Desert · Simpson Desert · Strzelecki Desert · Sturt's Stony
Desert · Tanami Desert · Tirari Desert
Europe
Accona Desert · Bardenas Reales · Błędów Desert · Cabo de Gata · Deliblatska Peščara ·
Hálendi · Oltenian Sahara · Ryn Desert · Tabernas Desert
Deserts of the world
Middle East
Ad-Dahna Desert · Arabian Desert · Dasht-e Kavir · Dasht-e Lut · Dasht-e
Margoh · Dasht-e Naomid · Judean Desert · Nefud · Rub' al Khali · Negev ·
Syrian Desert · Tihamah
North America
Agate Desert · Alvord Desert · Amargosa Desert · Baja California Desert · Black
Rock Desert · Carcross Desert · Channeled scablands · Chihuahuan Desert ·
Colorado Plateau · Escalante Desert · Great Basin · Great Salt Lake Desert ·
Jornada del Muerto · Mojave Desert · Nk'mip Desert · Owyhee Desert · Painted
Desert · Smoke Creek Desert · Sonoran Desert
South America
Atacama Desert · La Guajira Desert · Médanos de Coro National Park · Monte
Desert · Patagonian Desert · Sechura Desert · Tatacoa Desert
Oceania
Kaū Desert · Rangipo Desert
Interest Grabber continued
Section 4-3

1. Describe the climate where you live.

2. What types of plant and animal life are found in your
area? Describe a few of the major characteristics of these
organisms.

3. Suppose that you had to move to an area with a climate
that was very different from the climate you now live in.
How would the plant and animal life in this new area be
different from the plant and animal life where you live
now?
Go to
Section:
Section Outline
Section 4-2

4–2
What Shapes an Ecosystem?
A. Biotic (Living) Factors: (the numbers and kinds of living things) and
Abiotic (nonliving) Factors: Temperature, water availability, precipitation, humidity,
wind, nutrient availability, soil type, sunlight
C. The Niche
1. If the Habitat is WHERE the organism lives within an ecosystem, then the Niche is
HOW the organism lives.
2. (a Niche describes what the organism’s place in the food web is and within which
range of biotic and abiotic factors it can survive)
D. Community Interactions
1. Competition (between members of the same species or between members of
different species which are all attempting to use the same resources at the same
time.)
A. The Competitive Exclusion Principle: No two species can occupy the same
niche in the same habitat at the same time.
2. Predation (described a few slides ahead)
3. Symbiosis (described a few slides ahead)
B.
Go to
Section:
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Section 4-2
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
ECOSYSTEM
Go to
Section:
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Section 4-2
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
ECOSYSTEM
Go to
Section:
The biological (living) influences on the
organisms within a given ecosystem
1. Competition (within & between species)
2. Predator-prey relationships
3. Symbiotic relationships

What are biotic factors that
influence a bison in
Yellowstone National Park?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Physical/non-living factors that shape an
ecosystem
What would be the abiotic factors in
Yellowstone National Park?
Temperature
Precipitation
Humidity
Wind
Nutrient availability
Sunlight
Soil type
Interest Grabber
Section 4-3
If you have ever been to a zoo or a botanical
garden, you may have noticed that the signs
that identify the animals or plants also
identify the part of the world where these
organisms are found. Different kinds of
animals and plants are found in different
parts of the world.
Go to
Section:
The biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
determine the survival and growth of an
organism and the productivity of the
ecosystem in which the organism lives
 The area in which an organism lives including
all of the biotic and abiotic factors it interacts
with is known as the
habitat of the organism

Habitat is to niche as address is to occupation
 An organism’s niche is how it uses the
complete set of physical and biological
conditions within its habitat to make its living.
 Niche includes: where the
organism sits in the food web, the
range of temperatures in which the
organism can survive.




Ponds, lakes, slow moving streams
Niche includes temperature considerations.
Example: How does the bullfrog deal with it’s
limited temperature tolerance?
Niche includes reproductive success
considerations. Example:During what time of
year would be the most favorable for the
bullfrog to lay it’s eggs and have the greatest
chance of reproductive success?
Resources include: water, nutrients, light,
food, space
 Competition: organisms of the same species
or different species attempt to use the same
resources in the same place at the same time
 Example of competition: tall trees in a forest
competing for light, water,
and nutrients.
 “Survival of the fittest”

Interest Grabber
Section 4-2

Organisms not only live together in ecological
communities, but they also constantly interact with one
another. These interactions, which include:
predation and competition,
help shape the ecosystem in which they live.

1. Based on your own experiences, define predation. Give
one example of predation.
2. Based on your own experiences, define competition.
Give one example of competition.

Go to
Section:
.
Community Interactions
1. Competition (between members of the same species
or between members of different species which are
all attempting to use the same resources at the
same time.)
A. The Competitive Exclusion Principle: No two
species can occupy the same niche in the same
habitat at the same time.
2. Predation (described a few slides ahead)
3. Symbiosis (described a few slides ahead)

No 2 species can occupy the same niche in
the same habitat at the same time.
Figure 4-5 Three Species of
Warblers and Their Niches
Section 4-2
Cape May Warbler
Feeds at the tips of branches
near the top of the tree
Bay-Breasted Warbler
Feeds in the middle
part of the tree
Spruce tree
Go to
Section:
Yellow-Rumped Warbler
Feeds in the lower part of the tree and
at the bases of the middle branches
2. Predation: Predator-Prey relationships
A. Predator: the organism that does the eating.
B. Prey: The food organism.
3. Symbiosis: any relationship between two species that
live close together. (often leads to coevolution)
A. Mutualism: both benefit (pollinator and plant)
B. Commensalism: one benefits, the other is not
harmed (buffalo, birds, and insects)
C. Parasitism: one benefits and the other is harmed
(fleas, ticks, tapeworms, etc…)
Competition
Every morning in Africa, a
gazelle wakes up. It knows it
must run faster than the fastest
lion or it will be killed.
Every morning a lion wakes up.
It knows it must outrun the
slowest gazelle or it will starve
to death.
The moral:
It doesn’t matter if you are a
lion or a gazelle. When the sun
comes up, you better be
running.
Actually, gazelles that want to
live need only outrun the
slower gazelles. (Evolution by
means of natural selection –
competition within a
population of its own kind
chooses those that are most fit
to the environment. In this
case, that means being faster
When one organism captures and feeds on
another, this is predation.
 Predator
 Prey
 This relationship
Keeps the populations
Of both species in
check.

D. Ecological Succession
1. Primary Succession – no soil (like volcanic island)
A. First species are the pioneer species (lichens: fungus/algae
symbiont) which feeds themselves by photosynthesis but also
creates soil by breaking apart rock so plants can grow etc…
2. Secondary Succession: (in greater detail from previous page)
A. changes after a disturbance
B. Climax Communities don’t really exist (fires, floods, climate
change, nonnative species introduction) because change is a
constant rather than an exception. Evolution is ongoing.
3. Succession in a Marine Ecosystems (in greater detail from previous
page)
A. Deep, dark oceans also experience change.
B. A Whale dying is a disturbance to the ocean floor that brings a
cascade of organisms to feed on the carcass and then each
other.


Mutualism-both species benefit from the
relationship
Example of mutualism: flowers and insects


One member benefits and the other is neither
helped nor harmed
Example: barnacles attached to the body of a
whale



One organism lives in or on another organism
and the host organism is harmed
Parasites usually weaken but not kill the host
Examples: tapeworms live in the intestines of
mammals, ticks live on the blood and skin of
mammals, such as deer & moose


Ecosystems are constantly changing,
sometimes quickly, like after a storm or flood,
more often, very slowly.
Ecological Succession is the series of fairly
predictable changes that an ecosystem goes
through over time




Primary succession occurs where there is no
soil
Primary succession follows a volcanic
eruption ( Hawaii, Mt. St. Helens) and when
bare rock is exposed following glacial erosion
Pioneer Species is the first species to
populate an area
Lichens are often the pioneer species
Lichen is made up of an algae and fungus that
can grow on bare rock.
 The algae
Are photoSynthetic &
The fungus
Decompose
Dying algae
To make soil.

Secondary succession follows a disturbance
to an existing community, but the soil is not
removed.
 Secondary succession follows
A disruptive event.
Examples: abandoned farm
land; forest fire in Yellowstone

Be sure to read about Marine Ecosystem
succession on page 96-97 in Biology text
 Marine ecosystem succession starts with a
disturbance, such as around the carcass of a
large animal, such as a
Whale.




A biome is physical environment that
contains a characteristic group of plants and
animals
Climate (temperature and precipitation) is a
major factor in determining the
characteristics of
a biome
Section Outline
Section 4-3

4–3
Land Biomes
A. Climate and Microclimate
A. Microclimate Example: South of the river (Apple Valley) may have a certain
climate but Eastview High School has a constant wind presence that is not
blocked and the north parking lot is often cool and windy, even on warm days.
Anyone who plays sports outside knows this.
B. The Ten Major Land Biomes (not typically describing oceans with this term)
(see next two pages)
C. Other Land Areas
1. Mountain Ranges
2. Polar Ice Caps (arctic ecosystem is not the same as the antarctic ecosystem even
though they have similar climate patterns. One has penguins and the other has
polar bears)
Go to
Section:
Microclimate: sometimes physical features
can impact a small area within a biome,
giving it an unusual climate, this is a
“microclimate”
 Thick fog around
San Francisco forms
a “microclimate”

Abiotic factors: hot & wet climate
 thin, nutrient poor soils
Biotic factors:
Many, many species


Warm year-round, alternating wet/dry
seasons, rich soils subject to erosion

Warm temperatures, seasonal rainfall,
compact soils, frequent fires due to lightning
Low
precipitation,
variable
temperatures,
soils rich in
minerals but
poor in
organic
nutrients


Warm/hot summers, cold winters, moderate,
seasonal precipitation, fertile soil, occasional
fires

Hot /dry summers, cool/moist winters,
moderate, seasonal precipitation, thin,
nutrient-poor soils, occasional fires





Cold to moderate winters, warm
summers,
Year-round precipitation
Fertile soils
Coniferous (cone-bearing) trees
present
Soil is often rich in “humus”
(decayed leaves and other plant
material)




Mild temperatures
Lots of rain in fall, winter, spring,
Cool, dry summer
Rocky, acidic soil






Aka: Taiga
Long, cold winters
Short, mild summers
Moderate precipitation
High humidity
Acidic, nutrient poor soils






Strong winds
Low precipitation
Short, soggy summers
Long, cold, dark winters
Poorly developed soils
permafrost
Compare/Contrast Table
Section 4-3
Ten Major Biomes
Biome
Precipitation
Temperature
Soil
Diversity
Trees
Grasses
Tropical Rain Forest
high
hot
poor
high
dense
sparse
Tropical Dry Forest
variable
mild
rich
moderate
medium
medium
Tropical Savanna
variable
Desert
low
Temperate Grassland moderate
mild
variable
summer hot
clay
poor
rich
moderate
moderate
moderate
sparse
sparse
absent
dense
sparse
dense
Temperate woodland
and Shrubland
summer low,
winter moderate
summer hot
poor
low
medium
medium
Temperate Forest
moderate
summer moderate, rich
winter cold
high
dense
sparse
Northwestern
Coniferous Forest
Boreal Forest
high
rocky, acidic
low
dense
sparse
poor, acidic
moderate
dense
sparse
Tundra
low
summer mild,
winter cold
summer mild,
winter cool
summer mild,
winter cold
poor
low
Absent/short
medium
Go to
Section:
moderate


Mountain ranges: biotic & abiotic factors vary
with elevation
Polar ice caps: Cold, low light intensity
Section Outline
Section 4-4

4–4
Aquatic Ecosystems
A. Freshwater Ecosystems (3% OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE WATER)
1. Flowing-Water Ecosystems (rivers, streams, creeks, & brooks)
2. Standing-Water Ecosystems (lakes and ponds)
3. Freshwater Wetlands (bogs, swamps, fens, marshes)
B. Estuaries – Wetlands that form where rivers meet the sea.
(often considered to be the nursery for many species)
(examples: Salt water marshes are coastal estuaries in temperate zones
like the Chesapeake Bay estuary. Mangrove swamps are coastal
estuaries in tropical zones like the Florida Everglades)
C. Marine Ecosystems
1. (photic zone: surface down to 200 meters)
2. (aphotic zone: permanent darkness (chemoautotrophs are the only
producers)
Go to
Section:


Flowing-water ecosystems include rivers,
streams, creeks, brooks,
Organisms in flowing water are adapted to
the conditions, which change with flow rate
changes, which depend upon ?




Standing water ecosystems include lakes and
ponds
Plankton is the general term for the free
floating or weakly swimming organisms that
live in salt and fresh water environments
Phytoplankton? What are they?
Zooplankton? What are they?
Freshwater Pond Ecosystem
Spoonbill
Frogs lay eggs in the shallow
water near shore.The eggs
hatch in the water as tadpoles
and move to the land as adults.
The shore is lined with grasses
that provide shelter and nesting
places for birds and other
organisms.
Duck
Water
Frog lilies Mosquito
Duckweed
larvae
Dragonfly
Snail
The roots of water lilies
cling to the pond bottom,
Pickerel
Diving
beetle Fish share the pond
while their leaves, on long
flexible stems, float on the
with turtles and other
surface.
animals. Many of
them feed on insects
at the water’s edge.
Trout
The bottom of the pond is
inhabited by decomposers and
Hydra
other organisms that feed on
particles drifting down from the
Snail Crayfish
surface.
Go to
Section:
Phytoplankton
Plankton and the organisms that
feed on them live near the surface
where there is enough sunlight for
photosynthesis. Microscopic algae
are among the most important
producers.
Benthic
crustaceans







Wetland is defined as an ecosystem in which water
covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for
at least part of the year.
Water may be flowing or still, fresh, salty, or
brackish (mix of salty and fresh)
Includes:
Marshes (along rivers, contains small plants)
Swamps(covered with water,
contains trees & shrubs)
Bogs (depression left by glaciers,)




A wetland formed where a river meets the
sea
Contains a mix of fresh and salt water
Affected by rise and fall of ocean tides
Most organic matter enters the food web as
detritus(tiny pieces of organic matter) in
estuaries

Temperate zone estuaries dominated by salttolerant grasses above the low tide line and
by seagrasses under water

Coastal wetlands dominated by salt tolerant
trees, referred to as “mangroves”



Photic zone-upper level of ocean where there
is enough light to allow for photosynthesis
Photic zone goes down to about 200 meters
Aphotic zone-permanently dark, containing
only chemosynthetic autotrophs
Interest Grabber
Section 4-4
The marine ecosystem that is exposed to
regular and extreme changes in
its surroundings is the intertidal zone.
During high tide, the intertidal zone
is covered by sea water. During low tide, this
area is exposed to air, sunlight, and heat.
Go to
Section:
Interest Grabber continued
Section 4-4
 1. What types of organisms would you
expect to find living in the
 intertidal zone?
 2. What characteristics do you think these
organisms have that enable them to live in
this zone?
 3. What effect do waves have on the
Go to
Section:
intertidal zone?
1. Intertidal Zone
A) Zonation (horizontal band of organisms that live in a particular
habitat.
(barnacles, snails, sea weed, sea urchins, sea stars, algai, nussels,
clams, crabs, etc…)
2. Coastal Ocean (from the low tide mark out to the continental shelf)
A) Kelp Forests with sea otters, sharks, seals, fishes, snails, sea
urchins, mussels, whales etc…)
3. Coral Reefs – coral, octopus, sea anemones and clown fish etc…
4. Open Ocean – (Pelagic zone) from 500 meters deep along continental
slopes to 11,000 meters deep into the deepest ocean trenches
5. Benthic Zone – the ocean floor contains the benthos which are organisms
that live attached or near the ocean floor.



Intertidal (near shore)
Coastal (shallow)
Open (deep)
Figure 4-17 Zones of a Marine
Ecosystem
Section 4-4
land
Coastal
ocean
Open
ocean
200m
1000m
Photic zone
4000m
Aphotic zone
6000m
Ocean
trench 10,000m
Continental
shelf
Go to
Section:
Continental slope and
continental rise
Abyssal
plain


Found in warm, shallow water,
Coral animals live in symbiosis with algae that
provide nutrients to the coral, and the coral
provides a place to live



The open ocean (pelagic zone) begins at the
continental shelf and extends outward
Covers about 65% of the Earth’s surface
Low productivity per m2, but large volume
Pelagic Zone
or open ocean
zone
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Pelagic (Open Ocean) Zone Depth and layers
Epipelagic Photic zone
From the surface down to around 200 m (656 ft).
The illuminated surface zone where there is enough light for photosynthesis. Due to
this, plants and animals are largely concentrated in this zone. Nearly all primary
production in the ocean occurs here. This layer is the domain of fish such as tuna,
many sharks, dolphin fish, and jellyfish. Epi- is latin for on top of or above.
Mesopelagic (twilight) From 200 m down to around 1,000 m (3,280 ft).
Although some light penetrates this deep, it is insufficient for photosynthesis. Mesostems from Greek for middle. At about 500 m the water becomes nearly depleted of
oxygen. Still, an abundance of life copes with more efficient gills or minimal
movement. Animals such as swordfish, squids, wolffish, a few species of cuttlefish,
and other semi-deep-sea creatures live here.
Bathypelagic (dark) From 1,000 m down to around 4,000 m (13,123 ft).
By this depth the ocean is almost entirely dark (with only the occasional thermoluminescence
organism, such as lanternfish). There are no living plants, and most animals survive by
consuming the snow of detritus falling from the zones above or (like the marine hatchetfish) by
preying upon others. Giant squid (as well as smaller squids & Dumbo octopuses ) live at this
depth, and here they are hunted by deep-diving sperm whales. Bathyal zone is Greek for Deep
Zone
Abyssopelagic (Abyssal zone) From 4,000 m down to above the ocean floor.
No light whatsoever penetrates to this depth. The name is derived from the Greek word meaning
bottomless (a holdover from the times when the deep ocean was believed to be bottomless).
Hadopelagic Hadal zone The deep water in ocean trenches.
The name is derived from the Greek Hades, the classical Greek underworld. This zone is mostly
unknown, and very few species are known to live here (in the open areas). However, many
organisms live in hydrothermal vents in this and other zones. Some define the hadopelagic as
waters below 6,000 m (19,685 ft), whether in a trench or not.
The bathypelagic, abyssopelagic, and hadopelagic zones are very similar in character, and some
marine biologists combine them into a single zone or consider the latter two to be the same.
Deepest part of the ocean, containing
organisms that are attached or near the
bottom
 Benthos-the
organisms
that live in
the benthic
zone
