Download Antebellum Before the War 1. Federalists

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Before the War
1. Federalists- The Federalists were originally those forces in favor of the ratification of the Constitution and were typified by a
desire to establish a strong central government
2. Antifederalists- The Anti-Federalists opposed ratification of the Constitution and were typified by a desire to establish a weak
central government- A corresponding desire for strong state governments
3. Irish, German Immigration- 1845-1854: In this single decade, the largest immigration proportionate to the American
population occurred. The Irish was the largest source of immigration with the German immigrants ranking second in number.
This spurred new sentiment for nativism and a new anti-Catholic fervor.
4. Alien and Sedition Acts- The Federalist-controlled Congress passed a series of laws which, on the surface, were designed to
control the activities of foreigners in the United States- Beneath the surface, however, the real intent of these laws was to
destroy Jeffersonian Republicans influence on immigrants
5. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions- A series of resolutions denouncing the Alien and Sedition Acts- First important
statements of the states' rights theory- Both legislatures claimed that the federal government had assumed powers belonging
to the states, and that state governments had the right to decide whether an act of Congress was constitutional
6. McCulloch v. Maryland- The ruling established the principle of implied powers through a broad interpretation of the U.S.
Constitution, giving Congress an expanded role in governing the nation. The decision also reinforced the supremacy of federal
law over state law when the two conflict.
7. Marbury v. Madison- First decision by the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional
8. Sectionalism refers to the different economies, social structures, customs, and political values of the North and South. The
North, without slavery, industrialized, urbanized and built prosperous farms, while the Deep South concentrated on plantation
agriculture based on slave labor
9. Tariff of 1828- The major goal of the tariff was to protect industries in the northern United States which were being driven
out of business by low-priced imported goods by putting a tax on them. The South, however, was harmed directly by having to
pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce
10. Tariff of 1832- Reduced the Tariff of 1828, but was not sufficient enough for Southerners
11. Nullification Crisis- This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832 were
unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
Industrial Revolution
12. The Industrial Revolution (mid-1700s to mid-1800s) included the birth of modern industry and the social changes that
accompanied industrial growth
13. The Industrial Revolution began in the British textile industry when inventors created water-powered and steam-powered
weaving machines.
14. Samuel Slater- was an early American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" because he
brought British textile technology to America-He brought the knowledge to America where he designed the first textile mills
15. Industrialization led to urbanization, as the percentage of the population who lived in cities doubled within 30 years.
16. Many people decided to move west- Manifest Destiny was the 19th century American belief that the United States was
destined to expand across the continent. It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico
17. Hundreds of thousands of Americans migrated West in the 1840s and 1850s, settling in different places, yet sharing the
dream of new opportunity.
The Second Great Awakening18. Congregations set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory. Members of these groups acted as apostles
for the faith and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture.
19. Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible
Society, founded in 1816.
20. The Unitarians- Included the well-educated and wealthy elite of New England among their members, declared the revivals
far too emotional and questioned the sincerity of the conversion experience
21. The Transcendentalists- New England writers who focused on distinction between “reason” and inner capacity to grasp
beauty and emotional expression vs. “understanding” and repression of instinct and imposed learning- goal to cultivate
22. Henry David Thoreau- People should seek self-realization by not conforming to society’s expectations & responding to own
instincts. His Walden (1845) of him living simply in the woods, essay “Resistance to Civil Government” (1849)- Government that
required violation of personal mortality not legitimate
23. Abolitionism is support for a complete, immediate, and uncompensated end to slavery. In the North before the Civil War,
there were only a few abolitionists and these were generally considered radicals. However, they were prominent and vocal, and
as sectional tension mounted, they became more prominent and influential.
24. Enlightenment thinkers criticized slavery for violating the rights of man- Quaker and evangelical religious groups
condemned it as un-Christian
25. Missouri Compromise- Allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter the Union as a free state26. Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854 Act of Congress that repealed the Missouri Compromise and introduced as the guiding principle
behind the incorporation of the Kansas and Nebraska Territories the idea of popular sovereignty--the idea that citizens of newly
formed territories could decide when they applied for statehood whether slavery would be allowed in their new state.
27. Compromise of 1850-This one abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia but bound Congress to create became
the Fugitive Slave Law. The Compromise of 1850 also admitted California as a free state and separately organized the territories
of Utah and New Mexico without restrictions on slavery.
28. William Lloyd Garrison: William Lloyd Garrison was a radical who founded The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper. He
advocated immediate, uncompensated emancipation and even civil equality for Slaves.
29. Dred Scott v. Sandford- Was a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that people of African descent brought into the United
States and held as slaves (or their descendants, whether or not they were slaves) were not protected by the Constitution and
could never be U.S. citizens
30. John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry- was Brown's raid was defeated by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E.
The Feminist Movement31. Women could not vote and if married, they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. They were also
discriminated in the areas of education and employment, not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. This encouraged
the development of educational institutions for women.
32. Resentment over limitations- Leaders of women’s movement (Grimke sisters, Stowe sisters, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady
Stanton, Dorothy Dix) began to draw connection between their abolitionist ideas and plight of women
33. Seneca Falls Convention 1848: Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, this convention adopted
resolutions for women’s rights. Among those adopted were a demand for women’s suffrage and a diminution of sexual
discrimination in education and employment- led to “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions” stating all men and women
are equal, call for women’s suffrage.
The Temperance Crusade
34. Alcohol was seen as responsible for crime, disorder, poverty. Large problem in West where farmers made extra grain into
whiskey, in East as leisure activity
35. American Temperance Union: The first national temperance organization, it was created by evangelical Protestants. Created
in 1826, they followed Lyman Beecher in demanding total abstinence from alcohol. They denounced the evil of drinking and
promoted the expulsion of drinkers from church.
Education Reform36. Reform toward universal public education-By 1830 no state had a system (they had some limited state versions)
37. Greatest reformer Horace Mann- Educating all of American Population is essential to work free political system- Academic
year lengthened, better teacher salaries and training
38. John Dewey- Argued that education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social
institution through which social reform can and should take place
Unions39. Criminal Conspiracy Laws: Initially, trade unions were persecuted for their strikes because they were construed as illegal
conspiracies under the common law. The early unions strove for higher wages, shorter hours, union control of apprenticeship
and a closed shop.
40. Commonwealth vs. Hunt: This decision deemed that the trade union and their strike techniques were legal, contradicting
the traditional idea of unions being illegal under the conspiracy laws of the English common law. Although this was a milestone,
it in fact did not open a new era for labor unions. Most judges still believed unions were illegal.
Create a graphic organizer that gives a brief explanation of each of the following movements during the
antebellum period.
- Temperance Movement
-Women’s Movement
- Prison Reform