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More Medieval Europe
England


Settled by Celts, the Germanic Tribes: Jutes,
Angles, Saxons
11th C. Invaded by the Normans led by William the
Conqueror
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Normans were of Viking descent, Normandy France
Last successful invasion of England; Battle of Hastings
1066
William ordered a census called the Domesday Book for
taxing purposes
Crusades
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1094-1291
Called by Pope Urban II to retake Holy Land (Jerusalem)
from Muslims
Pope said:

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
“God Wills It!”
Forgiveness of sins, Killing heathens OK
Appealed to:
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Nobles who wanted new land
Merchants wanted increased trade
Serfs who wanted freedom
Adventurers
More Crusades

First Crusade (1096)
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Christians took Holy Land
1187 Muslims retook city led by
Saladin
Third Crusade (1189)
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Led by Frederick Barbarossa of
Germany, Philip Augustus of
France, and Richard the LionHearted of England
Did not recapture city, but Saladin
allowed Christian Pilgrims passage
to Jerusalem
Other Crusades:

Women’s Crusade, Children’s
Crusade
Effects of Crusades

breakdown of feudalism:

weakened serfdom

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Weakened nobility:
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Sold land to pay for Crusades
Killed in Crusades
Stimulated Trade:

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fled to cities, freedom in Crusades
demand for luxury goods, like spices, citrus foods,
coffee, and silks
Europeans learned to build better ships, make
more accurate maps, & use the magnetic
Encouraged learning:

Muslims had preserved classical learning, universities,
libraries
Magna Carta


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
1215
King John of England demanded
more taxes from lords
Forced by the nobles to sign Magna
Carta (Great Charter)
1st document to limit monarch

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No imprisonment without Trial by Jury
Consulting with Lords before taxing
(later becomes Parliament)
No interference with Church authority
Monarch must obey laws
Church Structure

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Pope (Pontiff)– head of
the Christian Church
Cardinal – 2nd highest;
elects pope
Bishop – churchman
over several churches in
a territory
Priest – churchman over
a single church (parish)
Power of the Church

religious duties of clergy (priests)

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gave the sacraments, or church rituals, to
parishioners, like baptism, confirmation, &
matrimony
conducted mass (formal church service) in Latin
so that most people couldn’t understand
couldn’t marry
other religious personnel


monks (called brothers) were men who did
religious work from a monastery & took vows of
chastity, obedience, poverty, & sometimes silence
nuns (called sisters) were women who did
religious work from a convent & took the same
vows as monks
Lay Investiture

Popes and Kings claimed right to appoint Church officials

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1077 Pope Gregory VII ordered monarchs not to appoint
church officials
Henry IV King of Germany and HRE defied him
Greg excommunicated & deposed Henry

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Kings because gave the fief, they were vassal
Popes because of Religious authority
Henry went to Canossa (Pope’s retreat) and begged in the snow
barefoot for three days
Pope forgave him
Concordant of Worms 1122


Only Church could appoint officials
Rulers could give them fiefs
Great Schism
French archbishop Clement V elected
Pope in 1305
Moved court from Rome to Avignon in
France
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known as the “Babylonian Captivity” because
head of church has always been in Rome.
After a series of French popes, Gregory
XI moved back to Rome in 1377. At his
death, mobs in Rome forced the College
of Cardinals to elect a Italian Pope
Cardinals decided that he wasn’t the true
pope and elected another one who went
to Avignon
Finally settled with a Church council in
1417 but seriously weakened the Church