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Transcript
Health Occupations
Muscular System – Unit 2
Muscular Contraction
Occurs through a chain of molecular
actions
 Sliding Filament Theory

– Muscle cells use glycogen to produce
energy used to convert ADP to ATP
– Stimulus to contract causes the ATP cycle
to combine proteins actin & myosin into
actomyosin
– Calcium is needed for reaction to work
Sliding Filament Theory Cont.
Lactic acid is produced from glycogen
metabolism and is converted to water
and carbon dioxide if oxygen is present
 If oxygen is in short supply, lactic acid
builds up and soreness occurs
 Heat is also produced as a byproduct

Oxygen
Metabolism
Muscle
glycogen
Energy released
Lactic acid
If lactic acid builds
Up = soreness
ADP – Adenosine
ATP – adenosine
diphosphate
triphosphate
Phosphate
Energy
released
CO2 + H20
HEAT
Energy
released
Stimulus to contractEnergy from ADP/ATP
Cycle, plus Ca++, changes actin +
Calcium Myosin = Actomyosin
Myosin
Actin
Actomyosin
Muscle contraction
Types of Muscle Contraction
Strength depends on the strength of
nerve impulses received from the brain
 ALL OR NONE LAW OF SKELETAL
MUSCLE CONTRACTION

- EACH FIBER CONTRACTS COMPLETELY
OR NOT AT ALL!

However, not all muscle contractions
are the same
Types of Muscle Contraction

Isotonic contraction
– Muscle shortening that produces movement

Isometric contraction
– Muscle shortening that does NOT produce
movement (like pushing against wall)

Tonus
– State of partial contraction that maintains posture

Twitch
– Quick, jerky contraction of a whole muscle from
one stimulus
Types of Muscle Contraction

Tetanic contraction
– More sustained than twitch, caused by many
stimuli in rapid succession

Tetany
– Continued contraction of a skeletal muscle

Fibrillation
– Uncoordinated contraction of muscle fibers

Convulsions
– Contractions of groups of muscles in an abnormal
manner

Spasms
– Involuntary, sudden, & prolonged contractions
Assessment

General inspection
–
–
–
–

Asymmetry
Deformity
Swelling
Bruising
Systemic movement
– Assess for weakness

Reflex
– Assess neurological functioning
Assessment cont

Protractor
– Measures joint ROM

Blood tests
– Measures enzymes indicating muscular damage
(esp heart attacks)

Electromyography tests
– Tests individual muscles with needles inserted into
muscle

Muscle biopsy
– Take a slice of muscle to assess for tissue
disorders
Disorders of muscle system

Muscle cramp
– Sudden involuntary contraction of muscle
producing pain
• Usually in legs or feet
• Causes
– Exertion
– Unknown
• Treatment
– Stretching
– Gentle pressure
Muscular dystrophy

Group of genetic diseases involving painless,
gradual atrophy of muscle tissue
 Mild to severe sx
 No cure
 Treatment
–
–
–
–
Meds to slow progression
Braces
Corrective surgery
Gene therapy
Fibromyalgia






Group of muscle disorders affecting tendons,
ligaments, & fibrous tissues
Pain commonly in neck, shoulders, thorax,
lower back, thighs
NO INFLAMMATION
Pain & tenderness after exposure to cold,
damp, illness, minor trauma
More common in women
Treatment
– Decrease stress
– Rest, heat, massage
– Therapy to stretch muscles, exercise
Gangrene

Caused by microorganism
 Bacteria enter muscle tissue that has died &
destroys surrounding living tissue
 Extremities most often affected, but may see
it occur in gallbladder or intestines
 Treatment
– Remove dead tissue
– Antibiotics
– Meds against toxins
Hernia
Abnormal protrusion of a body part into
another body area
 Common – intestine through abd wall
 Results from weak abd muscles
 Treatment

– Bracing
– Surgery
– Meds
Myasthenia gravis







Condition in which nerve impulses are not
transmitted normally from the brain to the
muscles
Unknown cause
Autoimmune disorder
Muscle weakness in different body areas that
eventually become severe
Remission may occur
No cure
Treatment – maintain life support
Poliomyelitis
Viral infection resulting in paralysis
 No cure
 Vaccination prevents
 Treatment

– Symptom relief
Muscle Sprain
Traumatic injury to tendons, muscles, or
ligaments of a joint
 Pain & swelling
 Treatment

– Heat/cold application
– Rest
– Ultrasound
Pes Panus
Flat foot
 Fallen arches
 Congenital or weak foot muscles
 Causes extreme pain
 Treatment

– Corrective shoes
– Massage
– Exercise
Tetanus
Lockjaw
 Caused by bacteria
 Muscle spasms may be severe & can
result in death
 No cure but vaccine
 Treatment

– Prevent complications of muscles spasms
– Life support
Trichinosis
Parasitic infection caused by eating
undercooked pork
 Parasites form cysts in muscle tissues

– Diaphragm
– Chest muscles
Pain, tenderness, fatigue
 Can be fatal if it affects the brain or
heart

Body Mechanics

Careful & efficient use of body
– Good posture
– Balance
– Using strongest & largest muscles for work
– Prevents fatigue, muscle strain, & injury
Body Mechanics
Posture – body alignment
 Lets the body move & function with
support & efficiency
 Base of support –

– Area on which a body rests
– Good base of support needed for balance
– Feet are base of support when standing
Good body mechanics

Use strongest & largest muscles whenever
possible
–
–
–
–

Shoulders
Upper arms
Hips
thighs
Bend knees & squat to lift heavy objects
 Do not bend from waist
 Hold items close to your body & base of
support
 Avoid unnecessary bending & lifting
Good body mechanics






Do your work at waist level
Push, slide, or pull heavy objects rather than
lifting them
Widen base of support when pushing or
pulling
Move front leg forward when pushing
Move rear leg back when pulling
Turn entire body when changing direction of
movement
Good body mechanics
Avoid sudden or jerky movements, work
with smooth & even movements
 Get help from co-workers
 Don’t lift objects higher than chest level

Positioning

Proper positioning is important
– Promotes comfort & wellbeing
– Improves breathing & circulation
– Prevents complications
• Pressure ulcers
• Contractures
Fowler’s position
HOB 45 – 60 degrees
 Keep spine straight
 Support head & arms with pillows

Supine position

Back-lying position with flat bed
 Head & shoulders supported with pillows
 Arms/hands at sides, may support hands on
small pillows with palms down
Prone position

Lying on abd with head turned to one side
 Pillow under head, abd, lower legs
 Arms flexed at elbow with hands near head
 Feet can hang over mattress, then don’t need
a pillow under lower legs
Lateral or Side-lying position
Pillow under head & neck
 Upper leg in front of lower leg &
supported with pillows
 Small pillow under upper hand & arm
 Pillow behind back

Sim’s position
Left side-lying position with upper leg
sharply flexed so it is not on the lower
leg
 Lower arm behind patient
 Pillows under head & shoulder, upper
leg, upper arm & hand
