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The Early Byzantine Empire
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Capital: Byzantium
On the Bosporus
Commercial, strategic value of location
Constantine names capital after himself
(Constantinople), moves capital there 330
CE
• 1453 falls to Turks, renamed Istanbul
The Later Roman Empire and
Byzantium
• Byzantine Empire inherits Roman Empire
after fall of Rome in 5th c. CE
– preserved Greco-Roman culture and
advancements
• Eastern territories remain major power
until 13th c. CE
Shifts of the Byzantine Empire
The Later Roman Empire
• Roman infrastructure in place
– Roads, institutional hierarchies
• Challenges from strong Persian empire
(Sassanid dynasty, 224-641 CE)
• Invasions of Germanic peoples
Caesaropapism
• Power centralized in figure of emperor
• Christian leader cannot claim divinity,
rather divine authority
• Political rule
• Involved in religious rule as well
• Authority absolute
The Byzantine Court
• Etiquette reinforces authority of Emperor
– Royal purple
– Prostration
– Mechanical devices designed to inspire awe
Justinian (527-565 CE)
• The “sleepless emperor”
• Wife Theodora as advisor
– Background: circus performer
• Uses army to contain tax riots, ambitious
construction program
– The church of Hagia Sophia
• Codification of Roman Law
– Justinian’s Code
Mosaics of Emperor Justinian and Empress
Theodora and her retinue, from Basilica of San
The Hagia Sophia
The Hagia Sophia
Constantinople
Byzantine Conquests
• General Belisarius recaptures much of
western Roman Empire under Justinian
• Unable to consolidate control of territories
• Withdrew to defend empire from
Sassanids, Slavs
The Byzantine Empire and its neighbors
527-554 CE
Islamic Conquests and
Byzantine Revival
• 7th century Arab Muslim expansion
• Besieged Byzantium 674-678, 717-718
• Defense made possible through use of a
weapon “Greek fire”
Imperial Organization
• Themes (provinces) under control of
generals
• Military administration
• Control from central imperial government
• Soldiers from peasant class, rewarded
with land grants
Tensions with Western Europe
• Church
– Byzantine: Greek; Roman: Latin
– Conflicts over hierarchical control
• Fealty of Germanic peoples
– Roman pope crowns Charlemagne in 800, a
challenge to Byzantine authority
Byzantine Economy and Society
• Constantinople largest city in Europe, 5th13th c.
• Dependent on small landholders, free
peasants
• Earlier large landholdings destroyed by
invasions in 6th-7th centuries
• Theme system rewards soldiers with land
grants
Decline of the Free Peasantry
• Despite economic and social benefits of
small peasants landholdings, large
landholdings on the increase
• Reduces tax revenues, recruits to military
• Last three centuries indicate steady
decline of economy
Manufacturing and Trade
• Trade routes bring key technologies, e.g.
silk industry
• Advantage of location causes crafts and
industry to expand after 6th century
• Tax revenues from silk route
• Banking services develop
Urban Life
• Aristocrats: palaces; artisans: apartments;
working poor: communal living spaces
• Hippodrome
– Chariot races, “greens vs. blues”
– Politically inspired rioting
• Role of Theodora & Justinian
“Whether or not a woman should give
an example of courage to men, is
neither here nor there…At a moment of
desperate danger, one must do what
one can…If flight were the only means
of safety, still I would not flee. Those
who have worn the crown should never
survive its loss…Emperor, if you wish
to flee, well and good, you have the
money, the ships are ready, the sea is
clear. But I shall stay. I accept the
ancient proverb: Royal purple is the
best burial sheet.”
Theodora, AD 532
Orthodox Christianity
• Legacy of Classical Greece
– Greek replaces Latin after 6th c. CE; language
of New Testament
• Byzantine education sponsors
development of large literate class for
state bureaucracy
– Training in classical canon
The Byzantine Church
• By 6th C. Christianity is the dominant
cultural community
• Church and state closely aligned
• Council of Nicea (325) bans Arian
movement
– Human/divine nature of Jesus
– Constantine favors Arians, but supports
Nicean condemnation
• Byzantine Emperors appoint patriarchs
• Caesaropapism creates dissent in church
Iconoclasm
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Emperor Leo III (r. 717-741 CE)
Icons seen as a heresy
Destruction of icons after 726 CE
Popular protest, rioting
Policy abandoned 843 CE
Greek Philosophy and Byzantine
Theology
• Attempt to reconcile Greek philosophy with
Judeo-Christianity
• Constantine establishes school to apply
philosophical methods to religious
questions
Ascetism
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Hermit-like existence
Celibacy
Fasting
Prayer
St. Simeon Stylite
– Lived atop pillar for 37
years in Syria
Byzantine Monasticism
and St. Basil (329-379 CE)
• Patriarch of Constantinople reforms
monasteries
– Communal living
– Hierarchical structure
• Mt. Athos
– No women, female animals allowed
– Currently a World Heritage Site, is home to 20
Eastern Orthodox monasteries
The church at the Monastery of Great Lavra was the first monastery
built on Mount Athos in 963.
Tensions between Eastern and
Western Christianity
• Ritual disputes
– Beards on clergy
– Leavened bread for Mass
– Right for clergy to marry (West - yes, East - no)
– Services in Latin in West, Greek in East
• Theological disputes
– Iconoclasm
– Nature of the Trinity
Schism
• Arguments over hierarchy, jurisdiction
• Autonomy of Patriarchs, or Primacy of
Rome?
• 1054 Patriarch of Constantinople and
Pope of Rome excommunicate each other
– East: Orthodox Church
– West: Roman Catholic
Social Problems in the
Byzantine Empire
• Generals of themes become allied with
local aristocrats
– Intermarry, create class of elite
• Occasional rebellions vs. Imperial Rule
Challenges from the West
• Western European economic development
• Normans from Scandinavia press on
Byzantine territories
• Crusades of 12th-13th centuries rampage
through Byzantine territory
– Constantinople sacked, 1204
Challenges from the East
• Muslim Saljuqs invade Anatolia
– Threatens grain supply
• Defeat Byzantine army in 1071, creates
civil conflict
• Period of steady decline until Ottoman
Turks capture Constantinople in 1453
– Renamed Istanbul
The Byzantine empire and its neighbors
about 1100 CE
Influence on Slavic Cultures
• Relations from 6th c. CE
• Bulgaria influenced culturally, politically
• Saints Cyril and Methodius
– Create Cyrillic alphabet
• Slavic lands develop orientation to
Byzantium
Kievan Rus
• Conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989 CE
• Byzantine culture influences development
of Slavic cultures
• Distinctively Slavic Orthodox church
develops
• Eventual heir to Byzantium
St. Sophia Cathedral
St. Basil's Cathedral and Spasskaya Tower of
Kremlin, Red Square, Moscow
Kievan Russia