We learned that the people of the Harappan civilization moved east towards the Ganges River. Other people, with different cultures, were already living in the area. What do you think happened to these various cultures as they migrated? •Aryans migrate into India from Central Asia •New beliefs, customs, and writing (Sanskrit). • First Hindu temples – 600 B.C. • Vedas: ancient scriptures of India • Caste system – 500 B.C. • closely linked to Hinduism •Four Varnas or social castes Sub-castes Jatis •Occupation and birth •No marrying or socializing outside of caste •Caste cannot be changed Reincarnation Dharma: the path one must follow to be a good person “the duty one has to perform” “the law of one’s being” -Mahatma Gandhi High priests Brahmans Kshatriyas Merchants and landowners Vaisyas Sudras Lowest class Warriors and rulers The Untouchables Laborers and artisans “The person who is always involved in good deeds experiences [unending] divine happiness.” Write this quote in your own words. What does it mean? What Hindu belief is it referring to? Brahma The Creator Vishnu The Preserver Shiva The Destroyer Brahman: • One single spiritual power Monism: • All things are god, god is all things • Polytheistic • Avatar: the representation of a Hindu god or goddess in human or animal form • Each god/goddess represents brahman in a different form Samsara: cycle/wheel of life, death, rebirth Reincarnation: after death, the soul is reborn in a new body. Karma: the Hindu belief in cause and effect Dharma: the path one must follow to be a good person Ahimsa: nonviolence; treat all things with respect Moksha: release from samsara; ends the cycle of reincarnation • How do you think a Hindu follower can achieve moksha? • Why would followers of Hinduism want to achieve moksha? Puja: the act of worship Individual worship OR temple worship Small room or altar • Image (icon) of god/goddess • Recite prayers • Offerings Lakshmi Goddess of Wealth, Prosperity and Fortune After reading the Buddhist folktale, “The Steadfast Parrot,” what are some words you would use to describe Buddhism? Beginning of the Religion Siddhartha Gautama young Hindu prince tried to understand the cause of suffering traveled & shared his knowledge for 45 years Give up all selfish desires Dhamma Follow = the Truth the Eightfold Path • Be wise • Behave correctly • Develop your mind • Behave non-violently Achieve nirvana; a state of wisdom & peace Release from cycle of reincarnation Rejected the caste system All people can pass on knowledge, not just priests A person’s position in life was not the result of a past life. Right Understanding Having faith in the Buddhist view of the universe Right Intention Making a commitment to practice Buddhism Right Speech Avoiding lies and mean or abusive speech Right Action Not taking life, not stealing, and not hurting others Right Livelihood Rejecting jobs and occupations that conflict with Buddhist ideals Right Effort Avoiding bad attitudes and developing good ones Right Mindfulness Being aware of one’s own body, feelings, and thoughts Right Concentration Thinking deeply to find answers to problems Why do Hinduism and Buddhism share many similar beliefs?