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We learned that the people of the
Harappan civilization moved east towards
the Ganges River. Other people, with
different cultures, were already living in
the area.
What do you
think happened
to these various
cultures as they
•Aryans migrate into India from Central Asia
•New beliefs, customs, and writing (Sanskrit).
• First Hindu temples – 600 B.C.
• Vedas: ancient scriptures of India
• Caste system – 500 B.C.
• closely linked to Hinduism
•Four Varnas or social castes
•Occupation and birth
•No marrying or socializing outside of caste
•Caste cannot be changed
Dharma: the path one must follow to be a good
“the duty one has to perform”
“the law of one’s being”
-Mahatma Gandhi
High priests
Merchants and
Lowest class
Warriors and rulers
The Untouchables
Laborers and
“The person who is always
involved in good deeds
experiences [unending] divine
Write this quote in your own words.
What does it mean?
What Hindu belief is it referring to?
The Creator
The Preserver
The Destroyer
• One single spiritual power
• All things are god, god is all things
• Polytheistic
• Avatar: the representation of a
Hindu god or goddess in human or
animal form
• Each god/goddess represents
brahman in a different form
Samsara: cycle/wheel of life, death, rebirth
Reincarnation: after death, the soul is
reborn in a new body.
Karma: the Hindu belief in cause and effect
Dharma: the path one must follow to
be a good person
Ahimsa: nonviolence; treat all things
with respect
Moksha: release from samsara; ends the
cycle of reincarnation
• How do you think a Hindu follower can
achieve moksha?
• Why would followers of Hinduism want to
achieve moksha?
Puja: the act of worship
Individual worship OR temple worship
Small room or altar
• Image (icon) of god/goddess
• Recite prayers
• Offerings
Goddess of Wealth,
Prosperity and Fortune
After reading the Buddhist folktale, “The
Steadfast Parrot,” what are some words
you would use to describe Buddhism?
Beginning of the Religion
Siddhartha Gautama
young Hindu prince
 tried to understand the cause of suffering
 traveled & shared his knowledge for 45 years
 Give
up all selfish desires
 Dhamma
 Follow
= the Truth
the Eightfold Path
• Be wise
• Behave correctly
• Develop your mind
• Behave non-violently
 Achieve
nirvana; a state of wisdom & peace
 Release
from cycle of reincarnation
 Rejected
the caste system
 All
people can pass on knowledge, not
just priests
person’s position in life was not the
result of a past life.
Right Understanding
Having faith in the Buddhist view of the universe
Right Intention
Making a commitment to practice Buddhism
Right Speech
Avoiding lies and mean or abusive speech
Right Action
Not taking life, not stealing, and not hurting others
Right Livelihood
Rejecting jobs and occupations that conflict with Buddhist
Right Effort
Avoiding bad attitudes and developing good ones
Right Mindfulness
Being aware of one’s own body, feelings, and thoughts
Right Concentration
Thinking deeply to find answers to problems
Why do Hinduism and
Buddhism share many similar