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Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
Chapter 3 Section 2: pages 76-82
--No single founder and no single sacred
--Grew out of diverse beliefs of people
who settled in India
--As religion was added to, became very
--Founded by Siddhartha Gautama
--Hindu prince, isolated
--Sees suffering for the first time
--Leaves home and seeks answers from
Hindu scholars
--Finally sits under tree and eventually
becomes “enlightened”
--Single unchanging, all-powerful force in
everything called Brahman
--All gods and goddesses took many forms
--Each person has essential self called
--Goal of existence is to achieve moksha,
union with Brahman
--Believe in reincarnation (rebirth) to allow
people to continue to work towards
--Obey karma to achieve moksha—karma
is all actions of your life that affect fate in
next life
--Stress importance of dharma—religious
and moral duties of individual—duties
vary according to class, gender,
occupation, etc.
--Believe in no-violence called ahisma
-Believes and teaches Four Noble Truths
1. All life is full of suffering, pain, and
2. Cause of suffering is nonvirture or
negative deeds and mindsets like hatred and
3. Only cure for suffering is to overcome
4.Way to overcome nonvirture is to follow
the Eightfold Path
--No single text
--Hindu teachings recorded in 4 Vedas
--Upanishads address mystical questions
--Texts examine ideas about human souls
--Teachings collected in Tripitaka or Three
Baskets of Wisdom
--Emphasizes duty
Effect on society
and the caste
--Caste (social hierarchy system)was linked
to Hindu beliefs
--Higher up in caste system more likely to
achieve moksha
--impacted your entire life—clothes, diet,
occupation, marriage, neighborhood
--Karma affected caste—must fulfill duties
at present level to be better in the next
Jainism grew from Hinduism and still exists
--separates into 2 sects (subgroups)—
Theravada and Mahayana
Theravada more work
Mahayana is easier path
Key beliefs
Eightfold Path: right views, right aspiration,
right speech, right conduct, right livelihood,
right effort, right thinking
Commit to 4 Noble truths, live moral life,
and practice meditation—goal was nirvana
or union with universe (released from
--Buddhism declines in India
--Spreads east into China, Japan, Tibet,