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Transcript
Name:____________________________ Period: _____
Essential Questions Unit 1 The Mystery
Unit 1.1 Investigating the Scene
1. What can be done at a scene of a mysterious death to help reconstruct what
happened?
2. How do the clues found at a scene of a mysterious death help investigators
determine what might have occurred and help identify or exonerate potential
suspects?
3. How do scientists design experiments to find the most accurate answer to the
question they are asking?
4. How are bloodstain patterns left at a crime scene used to help investigators
establish the events that took place during a crime?
Unit 1.2 DNA Analysis
1. What is DNA?
2. What is the relationship between chromosomes, DNA, and genes?
3. How do scientists isolate DNA in order to study it?
4. How does DNA differ from person to person?
5. How can tools of molecular biology be used to compare the DNA of two
individuals?
6. What are restriction enzymes?
7. What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms?
8. What is gel electrophoresis and how can the results of this technique be
interpreted?
Unit 1.3 The Findings
1. What is an autopsy and how can it be used to determine the cause of death?
2. How can the manner of death be determined?
3. What biomedical science professionals are involved in crime scene analysis and
determination of manner of death?
Unit 2 Diabetes Essential Questions
Lesson 2.1 What is Diabetes?
1. What is diabetes?
2. How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes?
3. How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body
produces and uses insulin?
4. What is the relationship between insulin and glucose?
5. How does insulin assist with the movement of glucose into body cells?
6. What is homeostasis?
7. What does feedback refer to in the human body?
8. How does the body regulate the level of blood glucose?
Lesson 2.2 The Science of Food
1. What are the main nutrients found in food?
2. How can carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins be detected in foods?
3. What types of foods supply sugar, starch, proteins and lipids?
4. How can food labels be used to evaluate dietary choices?
5. What role do basic nutrients play in the function of the human body?
6. What are basic recommendations for a diabetic diet?
7. What are the main structural components of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids?
8. What is dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?
9. How do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis relate to harnessing energy from
food?
10. How is the amount of energy in a food determined?
Lesson 2.3 Life with Diabetes
1. What are several ways the life of someone with diabetes is impacted by the
disorder?
2. How do the terms hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia relate to diabetes?
3. What might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentrations of sugar?
4. How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ?
5. What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes?
6. What is the importance of checking blood sugar levels for a diabetic?
7. How can an insulin pump help a diabetic?
8. What are potential short and long term complications of diabetes?
9. What innovations are available to help diabetics manage and treat their disease?
Unit 3 Sickle Cell Disease Essential Questions
3.1 The Disease
1. What is sickle cell disease?
2. Why does the sickling of red blood cells cause health problems?
3. What is sickle cell anemia?
4. How is anemia diagnosed?
5. How does sickle cell disease affect daily life?
3.2 It’s in the Genes
1. What is the DNA code?
2. What is the connection between genes and proteins?
3. How are proteins produced in a cell?
4. How does the sequence of nucleotides in DNA determine the sequence of amino
acids in a protein?
5. What is a mutation?
6. What determines the shape of a protein?
7. Is the shape of a protein affected by its surrounding environment?
8. How does a change in the DNA code affect the shape of a protein?
9. Can changing just one nucleotide in a gene change the shape of a protein?
3.3 Chromosomes
1. How is DNA passed to new cells during cell division?
2. What is a chromosome?
3. How are traits passed through the generations?
4. Should a person have rights to their organs and tissues?
5. Why is confidentiality of patient information important?
6. Who should keep patient information confidential?
7. Is there ever a time when patient confidentiality should be broken?
3.4 Inheritance
1. How are pedigrees used to track diseases?
2. Why does sickle cell disease run in families, yet is not present in every
generation?
3. How can doctors and genetic counselors calculate the probability of a child
inheriting a disease?
4. How does the presence of malaria in a region affect the frequencies of normal
versus sickle cell alleles?
Unit 4 Heart Disease Essential Questions Review for Test
4.1 Heart Structure
1. What are the structures that make up the human heart and how are they
organized?
2. How do the heart and lungs work together to pick up and deliver oxygen to the
cells?
3. What is the pathway that blood takes as it passes through the heart?
4. What is the function of valves in the heart?
5. How does the structure of arteries and veins relate to their functions?
4.2 The Heart at Work
1. In what ways can technology be used to collect and analyze cardiovascular data?
2. Why is it important to monitor the rate at which the heart beats?
3. What factors can influence heart rate?
4. What is blood pressure?
5. How do systolic and diastolic blood pressure values relate to the movement of
blood in arteries?
6. What factors can influence blood pressure?
7. What is an EKG?
8. How can an EKG be used in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease?
4.3 Heart Dysfunction
1. What is cholesterol?
2. What roles does cholesterol play in our cells and in the body?
3. What are LDL and HDL?
4. How are LDL, HDL, and cholesterol related to heart disease?
5. How do doctors interpret the results of a cholesterol test?
6. What is familial hypercholesterolemia and how is it inherited?
7. How can techniques of molecular biology be used to analyze DNA for the
presence of the FH mutation?
8. What lifestyle changes may help a patient obtain healthy cholesterol levels?
9. What are the pros and cons of using cholesterol lowering medications?
10. How does the heart work as a pump?
11. What is atherosclerosis?
12. How can cholesterol plaques affect the overall function of the heart?
4.4 Heart Intervention
1. What is heart disease?
2. What happens inside the heart to cause a heart attack?
3. How do doctors treat a blocked blood vessel?
4. What are risk factors for the development of heart disease?
5. How can a person decrease his or her risk of heart disease?
6. What is metabolic syndrome?
Unit 5 Infectious Disease Essential Questions and Key Terms
Essential Questions
1. How are infectious diseases spread through a population?
2. What is aseptic technique?
3. How can an unknown sample of bacteria be identified?
4. How does the immune system function to protect the human body from foreign
invaders?
Unit 6 Post Mortem Essential Questions and Key Terms
Essential Questions
1. What are examples of human body systems?
2. What organs make up the different body systems?
3. How do the different body systems interact to maintain good health?
4. What might be the consequence of malfunctions in any of the body systems?
5. How can prevention measures and medical interventions prolong life?
Key Terms Unit 1 The Mystery
Lesson 1.1 Investigating the Scene
Biomedical
Science
Control Group
Dependent
Variable
Experiment
Forensic Science
Hypothesis
Independent
Variable
Negative Control
Personal
Protective
Equipment
Positive Control
The application of the principles of the natural sciences,
especially biology and physiology, to clinical medicine.
The group in an experiment where the independent variable
being tested is not applied so that it may serve as a standard
for comparison against the experimental group where the
independent variable is applied.
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the
research is interested.
A research study conducted to determine the effect that one
variable has upon another variable.
The application of scientific knowledge to questions of civil and
criminal law.
Clear prediction of the anticipated results of an experiment.
The variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher.
Control group where conditions produce a negative outcome.
Negative control groups help identify outside influences which
may be present that were not accounted for when the
procedure was created.
Specialized clothing or equipment, worn by an employee for
protection against infectious materials (as defined by OSHA).
Group expected to have a positive result, allowing the
researcher to show that the experimental set up was capable
of producing results.
Lesson 1.2 DNA Analysis
Adenine
Chromosome
Cytosine
Deoxyribonucleic
Acid (DNA)
Gel
Electrophoresis
A component of nucleic acids, energy-carrying molecules such
as ATP, and certain coenzymes. Chemically, it is a purine
base.
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain
the genetic material.
A component of nucleic acids that carries hereditary
information in DNA and RNA in cells. Chemically, it is a
pyrimidine base.
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of
replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s
proteins.
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of
their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of
movement through an electrical field in a gel.
Gene
Guanine
Helix
Model
Nucleotide
Restriction
Enzyme
Restriction
Fragment Length
Polymorphisms
(RFLPs)
Thymine
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific
nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
A component of nucleic acids that carries hereditary
information in DNA and RNA in cells. Chemically, it is a purine
base.
Something spiral in form.
A simplified version of something complex used, for example,
to analyze and solve problems or make predictions.
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar
covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate
group.
A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide
sequences and cuts up DNA.
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes
that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment
lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with
restriction enzymes).
A component of nucleic acid that carries hereditary information
in DNA in cells. Chemically, it is a pyrimidine base.
Lesson 1.3 The Findings
Autopsy
Bibliography
Citation
Documentation
Medical Examiner
An examination of the body after death usually with such
dissection as will expose the vital organs for determining the
cause of death.
A document showing all the sources used to research
information.
A written reference to a specific work (book, article,
dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) by a particular
author or creator which identifies the document in which the
work may be found.
The act of creating citations to identify resources used in
writing a work.
A physician who performs an autopsy when death may be
accidental or violent. He or she may also serve in some
jurisdictions as the coroner.
Key Terms Unit 2 Diabetes
Lesson 2.1 What is Diabetes?
Glucagon
Glucose
Tolerance Test
A protein hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that
raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to
insulin.
A test of the body’s ability to metabolize glucose that involves
the administration of a measured dose of glucose to the
fasting stomach and the determination of blood glucose levels
Homeostasis
Hormone
Insulin
Negative
Feedback
Positive
Feedback
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
in the blood or urine at intervals thereafter and that is used
especially to detect diabetes.
The maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological
conditions (as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher
animals under fluctuating environmental conditions.
A product of living cells that circulates in blood and produces a
specific, often stimulatory, effect on the activity of cells that are
often far from the source of the hormone.
A protein hormone secreted by the pancreas that is essential
for the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of
glucose levels in the blood.
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a
physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a
response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its
output.
Diabetes of a form that usually develops during childhood or
adolescence and is characterized by a severe deficiency of
insulin, leading to high blood glucose levels.
Diabetes of a form that develops especially in adults and most
often obese individuals and that is characterized by high blood
glucose resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with
the body’s inability to compensate with increased insulin
production.
Lesson 2.2 The Science of Food
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Amino Acid
Calorie
Carbohydrate
Chemical Bond
Chemical
Indicator
A compound composed of adenosine and three phosphate
groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular
processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis.
An organic monomer which serves as a building block of
proteins.
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature
of 1 g of water by 1°C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g
of water releases when it cools by 1°C. The Calorie (with a
capital C), usually used to indicate the energy content of food,
is a kilocalorie.
A sugar in the form of a monosaccharide, disaccharide or
polysaccharide.
An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or
groups of atoms in a molecule or compound.
A substance (as a dye) used to show visually usually by its
capacity for color change, the condition of a solution with
respect to the presence of free acid or alkali or some other
substance.
Chemical
Reaction
Compound
Covalent bond
Dehydration
Synthesis
Disaccharide
Element
Glucose
Homeostasis
Hydrolysis
Ionic bond
Lipid
Macromolecule
Molecule
Monomer
Monosaccharide
Nutrient
Polymer
Polysaccharide
Protein
Chemical transformation or change; the interaction of chemical
entities.
A substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed
ratio.
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one
or more pairs of valence electrons.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded
together with the removal of a water molecule.
A double sugar molecule made of two monosaccharides
bonded together through dehydration synthesis.
The smallest particle of a substance that retains all the
properties of the substance and is composed of one or more
atoms.
A monomer of carbohydrate, simple sugar.
The maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological
conditions (as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher
animals under fluctuating environmental conditions.
A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water.
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between
oppositely charged ions.
One of a family of compounds including fats, phospholipids,
and steroids that is insoluble in water.
A type of giant molecule formed by joining smaller molecules
which includes proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic
acids.
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the
simplest type of sugar.
A substance that is needed by the body to maintain life and
health.
A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units
or molecules linked together.
A polymer of thousands of simple sugars formed by
dehydration synthesis.
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino
acids.
Lesson 2.3 Life with Diabetes
Hemoglobin A1c
Hyperglycemia
Hypertonic
Hypoglycemia
Hypotonic
Isotonic
Osmosis
Solute
Solution
Solvent
A test that measures the level of hemoglobin A1c in the blood
as a means of determining the average blood sugar
concentrations for the preceding two to three months.
An excess of sugar in the blood.
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater
solute concentration.
Abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood.
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a lower
solute concentration.
Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
The movement of water across a selectively permeable
membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of
lower concentration.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more
substances.
The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile
solvent known.
Key Terms Unit 3 Sickle Cell Disease
3.1 The Disease
Anemia
A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in
hemoglobin, or in total volume.
Blood Plasma
The pale yellow fluid portion of whole blood that consists of
water and its dissolved constituents including, sugars, lipids,
metabolic waste products, amino acids, hormones, and
vitamins.
Erythrocytes (Red Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to
Blood Cells)
the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate
blood.
Hematocrit
The percent of the volume of whole blood that is composed of
red blood cells as determined by separation of red blood cells
from the plasma usually by centrifugation.
Leukocytes
Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin,
(White Blood
contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes,
Cells)
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
Sickle Cell
Individuals who are homozygous for the gene controlling
Disease
hemoglobin S. The disease is characterized by the destruction
of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by
the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium.
Thrombocytes
A minute colorless anucleate disklike body of mammalian
(Platelets)
blood that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other
platelets and to damaged epithelium.
3.2 It’s in the Genes
Amino Acid
Anticodon
Codon
Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic
Messenger RNA
(mRNA)
Mutation
Nucleotide
Protein
Protein Synthesis
Ribonucleic Acid
(RNA)
Ribosome
Transcription
Transfer RNA
(tRNA)
Translation
An organic monomer which serves as a building block of
proteins.
A triplet of nucleotide bases in transfer RNA that identifies the
amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon in
messenger RNA during protein synthesis at a ribosome.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a
particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the
genetic code.
Having an affinity for water.
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form
droplets in water.
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA and attached to
ribosomes in the cytoplasm; it specifies the primary structure
of a protein.
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating
genetic diversity.
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon
sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a
phosphate group.
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino
acids.
The creation of a protein from a DNA template.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with
a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A),
cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually singlestranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of
some viruses.
A cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis
in the cytoplasm; consists of ribosomal RNA and protein
molecules and is formed by combining two subunits.
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between
nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino
acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information
encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of
language from nucleotides to amino acids.
3.3 Chromosomes
Allele
Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a
given locus.
Autosome
Chromosome
Dominant trait
Gene
Genetic Material
Genotype
Health Insurance
Portability and
Accountability
Act (HIPAA)
Heredity
Homologous
Chromosomes
Karyotype
Meiosis
Mitosis
Mutation
Pedigree
Phenotype
Recessive Trait
Sex Chromosome
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex,
as opposed to a sex chromosome.
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain
the genetic material.
A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a
person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the
trait.
A discrete unit of hereditary information.
Molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms.
All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
A comprehensive set of standards and practices designed to
give patients specific rights regarding their personal health
information.
The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant.
Chromosomes having the same or allelic genes with genetic
loci usually arranged in the same order.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size
and shape.
The cellular process that results in the number of
chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one
half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each
pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter
cell.
A process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell,
involves a series of steps, and results in the formation of two
new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as
the parent nucleus.
A rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating
genetic diversity.
A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable
characteristics in parents and offspring over multiple
generations.
The observable properties of an organism that are produced
by the interaction of the genotype and the environment.
A condition that appears only in individuals who have received
two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining
the sex of an individual.
3.4 Inheritance
Allele
Chromosome
Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a
given locus.
Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain
the genetic material.
Dominant Trait
Gene
Genotype
Heredity
Pedigree
Phenotype
Punnett Square
Recessive Trait
A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a
person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the
trait.
A discrete unit of hereditary information.
All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant.
A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable
characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
The observable properties of an organism that are produced
by the interaction of the genotype and the environment.
A simple graphical way of discovering all of the potential
combinations of genotypes of an offspring, given the parents’
genotypes.
A condition that appears only in individuals who have received
two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
Key Terms Unit 4 Heart Disease
4.1 Heart Structure
Aorta
Aortic Valve
Artery
Atrium
Cardiovascular
System
Cell
Inferior Vena
Cava
Mitral Valve
Pulmonary
Circulation
Superior Vena
Cava
The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be
distributed by branch arteries through the body.
The semilunar valve separating the aorta from the left ventricle
that prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.
Any of the tubular branching muscular and elastic-walled
vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body.
An anatomical cavity or passage; especially a chamber of the
heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a
ventricle or ventricles.
The transport system of the body responsible for carrying
oxygen and nutrients to the body and carrying away carbon
dioxide and other wastes; composed of the heart, blood
vessels, and blood.
The smallest structural unit of living matter capable of
functioning independently.
A vein that is the largest vein in the human body and returns
blood to the right atrium of the heart from bodily parts below
the diaphragm.
A valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left
atrium and the left ventricle; prevents the blood in the ventricle
from returning to the atrium. Alternative name is bicuspid
valve.
The passage of venous blood from the right atrium of the heart
through the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to the lungs
where it is oxygenated and its return via the pulmonary veins
to enter the left atrium and participate in systemic circulation.
A vein that is the second largest vein in the human body and
returns blood to the right atrium of the heart from the upper
Systemic
Circulation
Tissue
Tricuspid Valve
Valve
Vein
half of the body.
The branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body
organs and then returns oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium
via the veins.
An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure,
or both.
A valve that is situated at the opening of the right atrium of the
heart into the right ventricle and that resembles the mitral
valve in structure but consists of three triangular membranous
flaps.
A body structure that temporarily closes a passage or orifice,
or permits movement of fluid in only one direction.
A vessel that returns blood to the heart.
4.2 The Heart at Work
Atrioventricular
Node
Blood Pressure
Cardiology
Diastole
Diastolic Pressure
Electrocardiogram
(EKG)
Heart Rate
A specialized mass of conducting cells located at the
atrioventricular junction in the heart.
Pressure exerted by the blood upon the walls of the blood
vessels, especially arteries, usually measured by means of
a sphygmomanometer and expressed in millimeters of
mercury.
The study of the heart and its action and diseases.
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is
relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
Blood pressure that remains between heart contractions.
A measurement of heart electrical activity.
A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as the
number of beats per minute.
Hypertension
An abnormally high blood pressure.
Pacemaker
An electrical device for stimulating or steadying the
heartbeat or reestablishing the rhythm of an arrested heart.
Pulse
The rhythmic expansion and recoil of arteries resulting from
heart contraction; can be felt from the outside of the body.
Sinoatrial Node
A small mass of tissue that is made up of Purkinje fibers,
ganglion cells, and nerve fibers, that is embedded in the
musculature of the right atrium, and that originates the
impulses stimulating the heartbeat -- called also S-A node,
sinus node.
Sphygmomanometer An instrument for measuring blood pressure and especially
arterial blood pressure.
Systole
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle
contracts and the chambers pump blood.
Systolic Pressure
The pressure generated by the left ventricle during systole.
4.3 Heart Dysfunction
Allele
Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable
phenotypic effects.
Atherosclerosis
Changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid
deposits on the artery walls.
Cholesterol
A lipid that forms an essential component of animal cell
membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the
synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
Electrophoresis
The movement of suspended particles through a fluid or
gel under the action of an electromotive force applied to
electrodes in contact with the suspension.
Familial
A metabolic disorder that is caused by defective or absent
Hypercholesterolemia receptors for LDLs on cell surfaces, that is marked by an
increase in blood plasma LDLs and by an accumulation of
LDLs in the body resulting in an increased risk of heart
attack and coronary heart disease, and that is inherited as
an autosomal dominant trait.
Genotype
All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or
group.
HDL (High Density
A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of
Lipoprotein)
cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of
phospholipids in which proteins are embedded. An HDL
particle carries less cholesterol than a related lipoprotein,
LDL, and may be correlated with a decreased risk of blood
vessel blockage.
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a given gene.
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
LDL (Low Density
A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of
Lipoprotein)
cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of
phospholipids in which proteins are embedded. An LDL
particle carries more cholesterol than a related lipoprotein,
HDL, and high LDL levels in the blood correlate with a
tendency to develop blocked blood vessels and heart
disease.
Mutation
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating
genetic diversity.
A laboratory technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by
PCR
(Polymerase Chain
incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase
Reaction)
molecules, and nucleotides.
Phenotype
The physical and physiological traits of an organism that
are determined by its genetic makeup.
Restriction Enzyme
A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide
sequences and cuts up DNA.
4.4 Heart Intervention
Angiogram
Angioplasty
Coronary Bypass
Heart Attack
Heart Disease
Metabolic
Syndrome
Risk Factor
Stenting
Stroke
The radiographic visualization of blood vessels after the
injection of radiopaque substance.
Surgical repair or recanalization of a blood vessel.
A surgical bypass operation performed to shunt blood around
an obstruction in a coronary artery that involves grafting one
end of a segment of vein removed from another part of the
body into the aorta and the other end into the coronary artery
beyond the obstructed area to allow for increased blood flow.
An acute episode of heart disease marked by death or
damage of heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply to the
heart muscle usually as a result of coronary thrombosis or a
coronary occlusion and that is characterized especially by
chest pain.
An abnormal organic condition of the heart or of circulation.
A syndrome marked by the presence of usually three or more
of a group of factors (as high blood pressure, abdominal
obesity, high triglyceride levels, low HDL levels, and high
fasting levels of blood sugar) that are linked to increased risk
of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.
Something which increases risk or susceptibility.
A surgical procedure or operation for inserting a stent, a mold
to keep a passageway open, into an anatomical vessel.
Sudden loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary
motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a
blood vessel of the brain.
Key Terms
Antibody
Aseptic
Technique
Bacillus
Bacteria
B Lymphocyte (B
Cell)
Coccus
Contagious
Fungus
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that
functions as the effector in an immune response.
A procedure performed under sterile conditions.
A cylindrical or rod-shaped bacterium.
Single-celled microorganisms that are often aggregated into
colonies or motile by means of flagella, typically live in soil,
water, organic matter, or the bodies of plants and animals, are
usually autotrophic, saprophytic, or parasitic in nutrition, and
are noted for their biochemical effects and pathogenicity.
A type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and
later produces antibodies.
A spherical bacterium.
Communicable by contact.
Saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing eukaryotic
organisms that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts,
Gram Stain
Helminth
Immunity
Infection
Microbiology
Phagocyte
Prion
Protozoan
Spirillum
T Lymphocyte (T
Cells)
Transmission
Virus
mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts.
A method for the differential staining of bacteria that involves
fixing the bacterial cells to a slide and staining with crystal
violet and iodine, then washing with alcohol, and
counterstaining with safranin. Results in gram-positive bacteria
retaining the purple dye and gram-negative organisms having
it decolorized so that the red counterstain shows up.
A parasitic worm (as a tapeworm, liver fluke, ascarid, or
leech).
A condition of being able to resist a particular disease,
especially through preventing development of a pathogenic
microorganism or by counteracting the effects of its products.
The state produced by the establishment of an infective agent
in or on a suitable host.
A branch of biology dealing especially with microscopic forms
of life (as bacteria, protozoans, viruses, and fungi).
A cell (as a white blood cell) that engulfs and consumes
foreign material (as microorganisms) and debris.
Any of various infectious proteins that are abnormal forms of
normal cellular proteins, that proliferate by inducing the normal
protein to convert to the abnormal form, and that in mammals
include pathogenic forms.
Any protist of the phylum or subkingdom Protozoa.
A spiral-shaped bacterium.
A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity
that differentiates under the influence of the thymus.
The way a microbial organism moves from one host to
another.
Any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that
typically contain a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA
core of genetic material but no semipermeable membrane,
that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living
cells, and that cause various important diseases in humans,
animals, or plants.
Key Terms
Cardiovascular
System
Digestive System
Nervous System
The transport system of the body responsible for carrying
oxygen and nutrients to the body and carrying away carbon
dioxide and other wastes; composed of the heart, blood
vessels, and blood.
The group of organs that break down foods into chemical
components that the body can absorb and use for energy and
for building and repairing cells and tissues.
The bodily system that in vertebrates is made up of the brain
Organ
Respiratory
System
System
and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor
organs and that receives and interprets stimuli and transmits
impulses to the effector organs.
Collection of tissues which performs a particular function or set
of functions in an animal's body. The heart, brain, and skin are
three organs found in most animals. Organs are composed of
tissues and may be organized into larger organ systems.
A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas
exchange between the body and the environment, consisting
especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific
function or set of functions.