Name:____________________________ Period: _____ Essential Questions Unit 1 The Mystery Unit 1.1 Investigating the Scene 1. What can be done at a scene of a mysterious death to help reconstruct what happened? 2. How do the clues found at a scene of a mysterious death help investigators determine what might have occurred and help identify or exonerate potential suspects? 3. How do scientists design experiments to find the most accurate answer to the question they are asking? 4. How are bloodstain patterns left at a crime scene used to help investigators establish the events that took place during a crime? Unit 1.2 DNA Analysis 1. What is DNA? 2. What is the relationship between chromosomes, DNA, and genes? 3. How do scientists isolate DNA in order to study it? 4. How does DNA differ from person to person? 5. How can tools of molecular biology be used to compare the DNA of two individuals? 6. What are restriction enzymes? 7. What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms? 8. What is gel electrophoresis and how can the results of this technique be interpreted? Unit 1.3 The Findings 1. What is an autopsy and how can it be used to determine the cause of death? 2. How can the manner of death be determined? 3. What biomedical science professionals are involved in crime scene analysis and determination of manner of death? Unit 2 Diabetes Essential Questions Lesson 2.1 What is Diabetes? 1. What is diabetes? 2. How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes? 3. How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body produces and uses insulin? 4. What is the relationship between insulin and glucose? 5. How does insulin assist with the movement of glucose into body cells? 6. What is homeostasis? 7. What does feedback refer to in the human body? 8. How does the body regulate the level of blood glucose? Lesson 2.2 The Science of Food 1. What are the main nutrients found in food? 2. How can carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins be detected in foods? 3. What types of foods supply sugar, starch, proteins and lipids? 4. How can food labels be used to evaluate dietary choices? 5. What role do basic nutrients play in the function of the human body? 6. What are basic recommendations for a diabetic diet? 7. What are the main structural components of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids? 8. What is dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis? 9. How do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis relate to harnessing energy from food? 10. How is the amount of energy in a food determined? Lesson 2.3 Life with Diabetes 1. What are several ways the life of someone with diabetes is impacted by the disorder? 2. How do the terms hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia relate to diabetes? 3. What might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentrations of sugar? 4. How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ? 5. What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes? 6. What is the importance of checking blood sugar levels for a diabetic? 7. How can an insulin pump help a diabetic? 8. What are potential short and long term complications of diabetes? 9. What innovations are available to help diabetics manage and treat their disease? Unit 3 Sickle Cell Disease Essential Questions 3.1 The Disease 1. What is sickle cell disease? 2. Why does the sickling of red blood cells cause health problems? 3. What is sickle cell anemia? 4. How is anemia diagnosed? 5. How does sickle cell disease affect daily life? 3.2 It’s in the Genes 1. What is the DNA code? 2. What is the connection between genes and proteins? 3. How are proteins produced in a cell? 4. How does the sequence of nucleotides in DNA determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein? 5. What is a mutation? 6. What determines the shape of a protein? 7. Is the shape of a protein affected by its surrounding environment? 8. How does a change in the DNA code affect the shape of a protein? 9. Can changing just one nucleotide in a gene change the shape of a protein? 3.3 Chromosomes 1. How is DNA passed to new cells during cell division? 2. What is a chromosome? 3. How are traits passed through the generations? 4. Should a person have rights to their organs and tissues? 5. Why is confidentiality of patient information important? 6. Who should keep patient information confidential? 7. Is there ever a time when patient confidentiality should be broken? 3.4 Inheritance 1. How are pedigrees used to track diseases? 2. Why does sickle cell disease run in families, yet is not present in every generation? 3. How can doctors and genetic counselors calculate the probability of a child inheriting a disease? 4. How does the presence of malaria in a region affect the frequencies of normal versus sickle cell alleles? Unit 4 Heart Disease Essential Questions Review for Test 4.1 Heart Structure 1. What are the structures that make up the human heart and how are they organized? 2. How do the heart and lungs work together to pick up and deliver oxygen to the cells? 3. What is the pathway that blood takes as it passes through the heart? 4. What is the function of valves in the heart? 5. How does the structure of arteries and veins relate to their functions? 4.2 The Heart at Work 1. In what ways can technology be used to collect and analyze cardiovascular data? 2. Why is it important to monitor the rate at which the heart beats? 3. What factors can influence heart rate? 4. What is blood pressure? 5. How do systolic and diastolic blood pressure values relate to the movement of blood in arteries? 6. What factors can influence blood pressure? 7. What is an EKG? 8. How can an EKG be used in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease? 4.3 Heart Dysfunction 1. What is cholesterol? 2. What roles does cholesterol play in our cells and in the body? 3. What are LDL and HDL? 4. How are LDL, HDL, and cholesterol related to heart disease? 5. How do doctors interpret the results of a cholesterol test? 6. What is familial hypercholesterolemia and how is it inherited? 7. How can techniques of molecular biology be used to analyze DNA for the presence of the FH mutation? 8. What lifestyle changes may help a patient obtain healthy cholesterol levels? 9. What are the pros and cons of using cholesterol lowering medications? 10. How does the heart work as a pump? 11. What is atherosclerosis? 12. How can cholesterol plaques affect the overall function of the heart? 4.4 Heart Intervention 1. What is heart disease? 2. What happens inside the heart to cause a heart attack? 3. How do doctors treat a blocked blood vessel? 4. What are risk factors for the development of heart disease? 5. How can a person decrease his or her risk of heart disease? 6. What is metabolic syndrome? Unit 5 Infectious Disease Essential Questions and Key Terms Essential Questions 1. How are infectious diseases spread through a population? 2. What is aseptic technique? 3. How can an unknown sample of bacteria be identified? 4. How does the immune system function to protect the human body from foreign invaders? Unit 6 Post Mortem Essential Questions and Key Terms Essential Questions 1. What are examples of human body systems? 2. What organs make up the different body systems? 3. How do the different body systems interact to maintain good health? 4. What might be the consequence of malfunctions in any of the body systems? 5. How can prevention measures and medical interventions prolong life? Key Terms Unit 1 The Mystery Lesson 1.1 Investigating the Scene Biomedical Science Control Group Dependent Variable Experiment Forensic Science Hypothesis Independent Variable Negative Control Personal Protective Equipment Positive Control The application of the principles of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to clinical medicine. The group in an experiment where the independent variable being tested is not applied so that it may serve as a standard for comparison against the experimental group where the independent variable is applied. The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested. A research study conducted to determine the effect that one variable has upon another variable. The application of scientific knowledge to questions of civil and criminal law. Clear prediction of the anticipated results of an experiment. The variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher. Control group where conditions produce a negative outcome. Negative control groups help identify outside influences which may be present that were not accounted for when the procedure was created. Specialized clothing or equipment, worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials (as defined by OSHA). Group expected to have a positive result, allowing the researcher to show that the experimental set up was capable of producing results. Lesson 1.2 DNA Analysis Adenine Chromosome Cytosine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Gel Electrophoresis A component of nucleic acids, energy-carrying molecules such as ATP, and certain coenzymes. Chemically, it is a purine base. Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material. A component of nucleic acids that carries hereditary information in DNA and RNA in cells. Chemically, it is a pyrimidine base. A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins. The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel. Gene Guanine Helix Model Nucleotide Restriction Enzyme Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) Thymine A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). A component of nucleic acids that carries hereditary information in DNA and RNA in cells. Chemically, it is a purine base. Something spiral in form. A simplified version of something complex used, for example, to analyze and solve problems or make predictions. A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA. Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes). A component of nucleic acid that carries hereditary information in DNA in cells. Chemically, it is a pyrimidine base. Lesson 1.3 The Findings Autopsy Bibliography Citation Documentation Medical Examiner An examination of the body after death usually with such dissection as will expose the vital organs for determining the cause of death. A document showing all the sources used to research information. A written reference to a specific work (book, article, dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) by a particular author or creator which identifies the document in which the work may be found. The act of creating citations to identify resources used in writing a work. A physician who performs an autopsy when death may be accidental or violent. He or she may also serve in some jurisdictions as the coroner. Key Terms Unit 2 Diabetes Lesson 2.1 What is Diabetes? Glucagon Glucose Tolerance Test A protein hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to insulin. A test of the body’s ability to metabolize glucose that involves the administration of a measured dose of glucose to the fasting stomach and the determination of blood glucose levels Homeostasis Hormone Insulin Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes in the blood or urine at intervals thereafter and that is used especially to detect diabetes. The maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions (as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions. A product of living cells that circulates in blood and produces a specific, often stimulatory, effect on the activity of cells that are often far from the source of the hormone. A protein hormone secreted by the pancreas that is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of glucose levels in the blood. A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation. Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output. Diabetes of a form that usually develops during childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a severe deficiency of insulin, leading to high blood glucose levels. Diabetes of a form that develops especially in adults and most often obese individuals and that is characterized by high blood glucose resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with the body’s inability to compensate with increased insulin production. Lesson 2.2 The Science of Food Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Amino Acid Calorie Carbohydrate Chemical Bond Chemical Indicator A compound composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis. An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releases when it cools by 1°C. The Calorie (with a capital C), usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie. A sugar in the form of a monosaccharide, disaccharide or polysaccharide. An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound. A substance (as a dye) used to show visually usually by its capacity for color change, the condition of a solution with respect to the presence of free acid or alkali or some other substance. Chemical Reaction Compound Covalent bond Dehydration Synthesis Disaccharide Element Glucose Homeostasis Hydrolysis Ionic bond Lipid Macromolecule Molecule Monomer Monosaccharide Nutrient Polymer Polysaccharide Protein Chemical transformation or change; the interaction of chemical entities. A substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio. A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons. A chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule. A double sugar molecule made of two monosaccharides bonded together through dehydration synthesis. The smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance and is composed of one or more atoms. A monomer of carbohydrate, simple sugar. The maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions (as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions. A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water. A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions. One of a family of compounds including fats, phospholipids, and steroids that is insoluble in water. A type of giant molecule formed by joining smaller molecules which includes proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids. Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer. A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar. A substance that is needed by the body to maintain life and health. A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units or molecules linked together. A polymer of thousands of simple sugars formed by dehydration synthesis. A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids. Lesson 2.3 Life with Diabetes Hemoglobin A1c Hyperglycemia Hypertonic Hypoglycemia Hypotonic Isotonic Osmosis Solute Solution Solvent A test that measures the level of hemoglobin A1c in the blood as a means of determining the average blood sugar concentrations for the preceding two to three months. An excess of sugar in the blood. In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration. Abnormal decrease of sugar in the blood. In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a lower solute concentration. Having the same solute concentration as another solution. The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. A substance that is dissolved in a solution. A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known. Key Terms Unit 3 Sickle Cell Disease 3.1 The Disease Anemia A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume. Blood Plasma The pale yellow fluid portion of whole blood that consists of water and its dissolved constituents including, sugars, lipids, metabolic waste products, amino acids, hormones, and vitamins. Erythrocytes (Red Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to Blood Cells) the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood. Hematocrit The percent of the volume of whole blood that is composed of red blood cells as determined by separation of red blood cells from the plasma usually by centrifugation. Leukocytes Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin, (White Blood contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes, Cells) neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Sickle Cell Individuals who are homozygous for the gene controlling Disease hemoglobin S. The disease is characterized by the destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium. Thrombocytes A minute colorless anucleate disklike body of mammalian (Platelets) blood that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium. 3.2 It’s in the Genes Amino Acid Anticodon Codon Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Messenger RNA (mRNA) Mutation Nucleotide Protein Protein Synthesis Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Ribosome Transcription Transfer RNA (tRNA) Translation An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins. A triplet of nucleotide bases in transfer RNA that identifies the amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon in messenger RNA during protein synthesis at a ribosome. A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code. Having an affinity for water. Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water. A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA and attached to ribosomes in the cytoplasm; it specifies the primary structure of a protein. A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity. The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids. The creation of a protein from a DNA template. A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually singlestranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses. A cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules and is formed by combining two subunits. The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template. An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA. The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids. 3.3 Chromosomes Allele Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus. Autosome Chromosome Dominant trait Gene Genetic Material Genotype Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Heredity Homologous Chromosomes Karyotype Meiosis Mitosis Mutation Pedigree Phenotype Recessive Trait Sex Chromosome A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome. Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material. A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait. A discrete unit of hereditary information. Molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms. All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group. A comprehensive set of standards and practices designed to give patients specific rights regarding their personal health information. The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant. Chromosomes having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order. A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape. The cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell. A process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves a series of steps, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. A rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating genetic diversity. A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characteristics in parents and offspring over multiple generations. The observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment. A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent. One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual. 3.4 Inheritance Allele Chromosome Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus. Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material. Dominant Trait Gene Genotype Heredity Pedigree Phenotype Punnett Square Recessive Trait A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait. A discrete unit of hereditary information. All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group. The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant. A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations. The observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment. A simple graphical way of discovering all of the potential combinations of genotypes of an offspring, given the parents’ genotypes. A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent. Key Terms Unit 4 Heart Disease 4.1 Heart Structure Aorta Aortic Valve Artery Atrium Cardiovascular System Cell Inferior Vena Cava Mitral Valve Pulmonary Circulation Superior Vena Cava The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body. The semilunar valve separating the aorta from the left ventricle that prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. Any of the tubular branching muscular and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body. An anatomical cavity or passage; especially a chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle or ventricles. The transport system of the body responsible for carrying oxygen and nutrients to the body and carrying away carbon dioxide and other wastes; composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently. A vein that is the largest vein in the human body and returns blood to the right atrium of the heart from bodily parts below the diaphragm. A valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle; prevents the blood in the ventricle from returning to the atrium. Alternative name is bicuspid valve. The passage of venous blood from the right atrium of the heart through the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it is oxygenated and its return via the pulmonary veins to enter the left atrium and participate in systemic circulation. A vein that is the second largest vein in the human body and returns blood to the right atrium of the heart from the upper Systemic Circulation Tissue Tricuspid Valve Valve Vein half of the body. The branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body organs and then returns oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium via the veins. An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both. A valve that is situated at the opening of the right atrium of the heart into the right ventricle and that resembles the mitral valve in structure but consists of three triangular membranous flaps. A body structure that temporarily closes a passage or orifice, or permits movement of fluid in only one direction. A vessel that returns blood to the heart. 4.2 The Heart at Work Atrioventricular Node Blood Pressure Cardiology Diastole Diastolic Pressure Electrocardiogram (EKG) Heart Rate A specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction in the heart. Pressure exerted by the blood upon the walls of the blood vessels, especially arteries, usually measured by means of a sphygmomanometer and expressed in millimeters of mercury. The study of the heart and its action and diseases. The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood. Blood pressure that remains between heart contractions. A measurement of heart electrical activity. A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as the number of beats per minute. Hypertension An abnormally high blood pressure. Pacemaker An electrical device for stimulating or steadying the heartbeat or reestablishing the rhythm of an arrested heart. Pulse The rhythmic expansion and recoil of arteries resulting from heart contraction; can be felt from the outside of the body. Sinoatrial Node A small mass of tissue that is made up of Purkinje fibers, ganglion cells, and nerve fibers, that is embedded in the musculature of the right atrium, and that originates the impulses stimulating the heartbeat -- called also S-A node, sinus node. Sphygmomanometer An instrument for measuring blood pressure and especially arterial blood pressure. Systole The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle contracts and the chambers pump blood. Systolic Pressure The pressure generated by the left ventricle during systole. 4.3 Heart Dysfunction Allele Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects. Atherosclerosis Changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid deposits on the artery walls. Cholesterol A lipid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids. Electrophoresis The movement of suspended particles through a fluid or gel under the action of an electromotive force applied to electrodes in contact with the suspension. Familial A metabolic disorder that is caused by defective or absent Hypercholesterolemia receptors for LDLs on cell surfaces, that is marked by an increase in blood plasma LDLs and by an accumulation of LDLs in the body resulting in an increased risk of heart attack and coronary heart disease, and that is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Genotype All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group. HDL (High Density A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of Lipoprotein) cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded. An HDL particle carries less cholesterol than a related lipoprotein, LDL, and may be correlated with a decreased risk of blood vessel blockage. Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a given gene. Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a given gene. LDL (Low Density A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of Lipoprotein) cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded. An LDL particle carries more cholesterol than a related lipoprotein, HDL, and high LDL levels in the blood correlate with a tendency to develop blocked blood vessels and heart disease. Mutation A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity. A laboratory technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by PCR (Polymerase Chain incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase Reaction) molecules, and nucleotides. Phenotype The physical and physiological traits of an organism that are determined by its genetic makeup. Restriction Enzyme A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA. 4.4 Heart Intervention Angiogram Angioplasty Coronary Bypass Heart Attack Heart Disease Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factor Stenting Stroke The radiographic visualization of blood vessels after the injection of radiopaque substance. Surgical repair or recanalization of a blood vessel. A surgical bypass operation performed to shunt blood around an obstruction in a coronary artery that involves grafting one end of a segment of vein removed from another part of the body into the aorta and the other end into the coronary artery beyond the obstructed area to allow for increased blood flow. An acute episode of heart disease marked by death or damage of heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle usually as a result of coronary thrombosis or a coronary occlusion and that is characterized especially by chest pain. An abnormal organic condition of the heart or of circulation. A syndrome marked by the presence of usually three or more of a group of factors (as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, high triglyceride levels, low HDL levels, and high fasting levels of blood sugar) that are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Something which increases risk or susceptibility. A surgical procedure or operation for inserting a stent, a mold to keep a passageway open, into an anatomical vessel. Sudden loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a blood vessel of the brain. Key Terms Antibody Aseptic Technique Bacillus Bacteria B Lymphocyte (B Cell) Coccus Contagious Fungus An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response. A procedure performed under sterile conditions. A cylindrical or rod-shaped bacterium. Single-celled microorganisms that are often aggregated into colonies or motile by means of flagella, typically live in soil, water, organic matter, or the bodies of plants and animals, are usually autotrophic, saprophytic, or parasitic in nutrition, and are noted for their biochemical effects and pathogenicity. A type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and later produces antibodies. A spherical bacterium. Communicable by contact. Saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing eukaryotic organisms that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, Gram Stain Helminth Immunity Infection Microbiology Phagocyte Prion Protozoan Spirillum T Lymphocyte (T Cells) Transmission Virus mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts. A method for the differential staining of bacteria that involves fixing the bacterial cells to a slide and staining with crystal violet and iodine, then washing with alcohol, and counterstaining with safranin. Results in gram-positive bacteria retaining the purple dye and gram-negative organisms having it decolorized so that the red counterstain shows up. A parasitic worm (as a tapeworm, liver fluke, ascarid, or leech). A condition of being able to resist a particular disease, especially through preventing development of a pathogenic microorganism or by counteracting the effects of its products. The state produced by the establishment of an infective agent in or on a suitable host. A branch of biology dealing especially with microscopic forms of life (as bacteria, protozoans, viruses, and fungi). A cell (as a white blood cell) that engulfs and consumes foreign material (as microorganisms) and debris. Any of various infectious proteins that are abnormal forms of normal cellular proteins, that proliferate by inducing the normal protein to convert to the abnormal form, and that in mammals include pathogenic forms. Any protist of the phylum or subkingdom Protozoa. A spiral-shaped bacterium. A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus. The way a microbial organism moves from one host to another. Any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that typically contain a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material but no semipermeable membrane, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in humans, animals, or plants. Key Terms Cardiovascular System Digestive System Nervous System The transport system of the body responsible for carrying oxygen and nutrients to the body and carrying away carbon dioxide and other wastes; composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The group of organs that break down foods into chemical components that the body can absorb and use for energy and for building and repairing cells and tissues. The bodily system that in vertebrates is made up of the brain Organ Respiratory System System and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor organs and that receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to the effector organs. Collection of tissues which performs a particular function or set of functions in an animal's body. The heart, brain, and skin are three organs found in most animals. Organs are composed of tissues and may be organized into larger organ systems. A system of organs, functioning in the process of gas exchange between the body and the environment, consisting especially of the nose, nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.