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The Early Middle Ages CHAPTER 7 Chapter 7 Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • After the fall of the Roman Empire Europe was cut off from the advance cultures of Asia • The period of time from 500AD to 1000AD is called the Dark Ages – Political divided, rural and cut-off from the advance civilizations. • Middle East, India, China • The blending of Greco-Roman, Germanic and Christian tradition created the Middle Ages Sect.1 The Early Middle Age Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • In the early Middle Ages, Germanic tribes (Franks) divided Western Europe. • In 486 Clovis the king of the Franks conquered Gaul – Modern Day France • Clovis had is own customs but kept some of the Roman customs and converted to Christianity – The religion of the people of Gaul – Gained a powerful ally in the Pope • Leader of the Christian Church of Rome Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • By 600Ad Islam began in Arabia, – Muslim-Believer in Islam • The Muslims created a huge empire and began to expanding. • When the Muslim Army came into France, a battle with the Franks occurred • Charles Martel (Frankish warrior) fought the Muslim at the Battle of Tours in 732AD – Victory was a sign that God was on their side • During this time the Muslims ruled in Spain, after their defeat they didn’t advance into Western Europe. • The Muslim presence was a source of anxiety to many European Rulers Sect.1 The Early Middle Age The Age of Charlemagne • In 768, Charles Martel’s grandson came to power. (Charles) – King of the Franks – Charlemagne or Charles the Great – He built an empire that covered France and Germany and part of Italy. • Spent much of his 46 year reign fighting, Muslims in Spain, Saxon in the North, Avars and Slavs in the East and Lombards in Italy Sect.1 The Early Middle Age A New Emperor of The Romans • In 799AD, Pope Leo asked Charlemagne to put down a rebellion of nobles in Rome. • Charlemagne forces arrested Leo’s opponents. • Proclaimed King of the Romans by the Pope on Christmas Day 800AD. – Very important on future events Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • The Christian pope had crowned a Germanic king as successor to the Roman emperors. • Revived the idea of a united Christian community – Christendom • Spread power struggles between the popes and future Germanic emperors. Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • The pope’s actions outraged the emperor of eastern Roman empire in Constantinople. – Eastern Empire continued to flourish. • Eastern Emperor viewed as sole Roman ruler. – Crowning of Charlemagne just deepened the split between the two Christian worlds. Sect.1 The Early Middle Age Creating a unified Christian Empire • Charlemagne envisioned a united Christian Europe. • Worked closely with the church to spread Christianity in Europe – Used missionaries to convert peoples on the fringes of his empire. • Saxons and Slavs mostly Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • Charlemagne appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions. • Charlemagne sent out officials to check up on rulers – Missi Dominic • Ordered to administer the law fully and justly in the case of the holy churches of god and of the poor, of wards and of widows, and of the whole people Sect.1 The Early Middle Age A Revival of Learning • Charlemagne viewed education as a way to unite his kingdom. – Charlemagne himself couldn’t read. – Relied on officials to write records and reports • Set out to revive Latin learning in the empire. • Created a palace school called Aachen Sect.1 The Early Middle Age Europe after Charlemagne. • Charlemagne died in 814AD – His son. Louis I took the throne. • Later Louis’ sons would fight for the throne – Treaty of Verdum. » Divided the Empire into three parts i Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • Enough though his empire is not together, it has a lasting impact. – Spread Christianity into northern Europe – Furthered the blending of Germanic, Roman and Christian beliefs. – Influenced future medieval rulers Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • Charlemagne’s heirs faced new waves of invasions. • Muslims still pose a threat. – Conquered Sicily and made it the center of Muslim culture. – Attacks subsided in the 900’s when power struggle appeared in the Middle East. Sect.1 The Early Middle Age Raiders From the North • The Vikings broke the last thread of unity in Charlemagne’s empire – Home in Scandinavia • Vikings were independent farmers ruled by a chieftains. • Expert Sailors • By 700AD began to looting and burning communities along the coast and river of Europe Sect.1 The Early Middle Age • Vikings were also traders and explorers – Sailed around the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. – Around 1,000 set up a short lived villages in North America • Opened trade routes that linked the Mediterranean Lands to Northern Europe • Settled in England, Ireland, Northern France, parts of Russia – Mixed into local populations Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • Feudalism began to develop in Europe as a result of the invasions by Vikings, Muslims and Magyars. • Kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order. • A decentralized political and economic structure evolved. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy Feudalism: was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords. In exchange the lesser lords or Vassals. Pledged to service and loyalty to the greater lord. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • The relationship between lords and vassals was based on the exchange of land for loyalty and military service. • Feudal contract: exchange of pledge between lords and vassals. • Fief: an estate granted by a lord to vassal in exchange for service and loyality. – Can range from a few acres to hundreds of square miles. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • The fief included the peasants to work the land. – Towns and buildings • As part of the agreement, the lord promised protection, the vassal pledge loyality. • Vassal also would provide 40 days of military service each year. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy The world of Knights and Nobles – In Medieval Europe, warfare was a part of daily life. – Most nobles began training in boyhood to become a Knight. • Mounted warrior. – Around 7 years old, boys who were to become Knights, were sent off the castle of his fathers lord. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy – Learned armor and weapons – Training was very difficult and discipline was strict • Punished laziness with angry blows and severe beating. – When finished the boy would be dubbed a Knight in a public ceremony. – Usually fought on horseback with sword, axes and lances. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • When on foot, used daggers, spears and crossbows and longbows. • Knights often fought in tournaments Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • During the middle ages, powerful lords fortified their homes • Eventually they became larger and grander. • Knights that defended castle also lived their. • In times of war, peasants in nearby villages took refuge in the castle. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • War often was centered around seizing castles that commanded strategic crossings, harbors, and mountain passes. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy Noblewomen: Restriction and Power • Played a active role in society • Took over the manor when husband was off at war. • Eleanor of Aquitaine was a leading force in politics in Europe for over 50 years Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • Women’s rights to inheritance was restricted in the feudal system. • Land was usually passed down to eldest son. • Women frequently received land as part of her dowry. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • Many young women were expected to learn how to sew, spin, weave and supervise the servant. • Expected to bear children and be dutiful to her husband Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy Chivalry: Knight’s code of conduct. • Knights wouldn’t attack another knight without allowing him to put his armor on. • If captured they would be treated well or even released, if he promised to pay his ransom. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • Knight were dictated to protect the weak – Peasants and noblewomen • Troubadours: wandering musicians, sang about the brave deeds of knights • Their songs became the basis for long epic stories and poems Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • The heart of the feudal was the manor. – Lord’s estate – Included the surrounding villages and land. – Peasant made up the majority of the population • Serfs. Peasant that were bound to the land. – They were not slave, but not free. – They couldn’t leave the manor without the permission of the lord. Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • Lords and peasant had mutual obligation to each other. – Peasant had to ask to marry. – Pay a fee to the lord for inherited land. – At the local mill to grind grain – Most payment were due on Christmas or Easter Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • The lord would give them: – Land to farm in their spare time. – Protection. The manor was generally self-sufficient – Peasant produced from food to clothing to furniture and tools – Peasant only travelled a few miles from the manor Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy • NO schooling or knowledge of the outside world. • The typical manor included cottage and cluster of huts in a villages. • Fields surrounded by the fields Sect.2 Feudalism and Manor Economy Peasant Life: • Very harsh. • Long hour. From sun up to sun down. • All members of the family, – Children helped plant seeds and etc. • Starvation was common • Average life span was 35 years. The Medieval Church • A pilgrimages was one way that medieval Christians showed their devotion to their faith. • The most important achievement in the Middle Ages was converting the diverse people of Western Europe to Christianity. The Medieval Church • Christian rituals and faith were part of everyday life. • In villages the only contact with the church came from local priest or parish. • The priest led mass and administered the sacraments – Sacred rite of the Church. The Medieval Church • Later middle age, parish priest ran schools • The Church was the center of social life. – Largest building in the village. – Also a place of worship. • Daily life centered around the Christian calendar – Easter, Local Holy days. The Medieval Church The Medieval Church • Christians believed participating in sacrament would help lead to salvation. • Priest preached the teachings of the bible – Only in Latin. – Guided people on moral issues and offered assistance to the sick and needy. The Medieval Church • Villages took pride in their church buildings. – Built of stone. – Housed relics or remains of Saints. • People were asked to pay a tithe. – Equal to tenth of their income. – Supported local parish The Medieval Church The rise of cathedrals • Bishops oversaw local parish. – Managed larger churched called cathedrals. • New technology made them possible. • Cities all over Europe built cathedrals. – Sign of pride for communities. Lincoln Cathedral in England Cologne Cathedral, Gemany The Medieval Church Church's attitude towards women • Church principle taught that men and women were equal before God. • On Earth, women were viewed as weak and easily led into sin. – Needed guidance of men. The Medieval Church • The Church tried to protect women – Set a minimum age for marriage. – Fined men who seriously injured their wives. • Women could be fined for similar offenses. The Medieval Church Monasteries and Convents • Women and Men who withdrew from worldly life. – Monks and Nuns – Devoted to a spiritual goals Monastery The Medieval Church • Benedictine Rule. Used to regulate monastic life. – Three Vows • Obedience to head of the monastery or convent. (abbot or abbess) • Poverty • Chastity or purity – Monks are responsible for improvement in agricultural methods. The Medieval Church • In a world without no hospitals or schools, monasteries and convent often provided basic health and educational services. • Monks and Nuns looked after the poor, sick. – Provide shelter for travelers. • Responsible for keeping learning alive. The Medieval Church • Their libraries contains Greek and Roman works. • Educated Monks and Nun wrote and taught Latin. – Language of the church. • In Britain, Venerable Bede wrote the earliest know history of England. The Medieval Church Opportunities for women • Couldn’t become priests. • Could teach the Gospel – Later was taken away. The Medieval Church Church powers grows • The church Gradually increased over time to a more powerful secular (Worldly) force in medieval Europe. • Medieval popes eventually claimed papal supremacy. – Authority over all secular rulers, Includes kings and emperors. The Medieval Church • Popes headed an army of the church. – Also held vast lands in central Italy • Papal States – Gave considerable economic and political power. • Churchmen were often highly educated. – Churchmen and Secular rulers were closely linked – Church officials were often relate to Secular rulers. The Medieval Church • The medieval church was dedicated to the worship of God – Also believed that people sinners and doomed to eternal suffering. • To avoid suffering a person should believe in Christ and participate in Church rituals. • Could deny them as punishment. – Showed absolute power of the church. The Medieval Church • The Church developed its own set of laws – Canon Laws. • Based on religious teachings – Governed many parts of everyday life – Anyone who disobeyed the church could face many penalties. • Excommunication (severe penalty) – Couldn’t receive the sacrament or Christian burial and condemned to suffer in eternity. The Medieval Church • Nobles who opposed the Church could be interdict. – Order excluding an entire town from receiving sacraments and a Christian Burial. – Nobles usually gave into the church to avoid being interdict. • Led to revolts by the common people. The Medieval Church • Church tried to with its great power to end warfare between nobles. • Truce of God. – No fighting from Friday to Sunday each week and religious holidays. The Medieval Church Corruption and reform. • as wealth grew, discipline weakened – Started with Land and wealth being left to monasteries and convents. • Lead some monks and nuns to ignore the vow of poverty. – Clergy lived in luxury – Priest eventually spent more time with family over religious matters. The Medieval Church • Church reforms began in the middle ages. Two reforms of the church • Reviving of Benedictine rule, Began in France. – Refused to allow nobles and bishops to influence the church • Limit secular influence on the Church. – Insisted church picks its own officials. • Outlawed marriage of priest The Medieval Church New preaching order. • Friar: Monks who didn’t live in isolation. • Travelled around Europe preaching to the poor • First friar was of the Franciscans – Wealthy Italian known as St. Francis of Assisi. • Gave up a comfortable life to preach the gospel. The Medieval Church Jews in Medieval Europe • Jewish communities all over Europe – Large population in Spain. • Center of Jewish learning. • As more people became Christian more prejudice towards Jewish people. The Medieval Church • Christians blamed Jews for famine, Illness and Etc. • Church forbid Jews from owning land and holding most jobs. • In response to prejudice most Jews migrated to Eastern Europe. • Rulers of Eastern Europe, welcomed the Jews. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. An Agricultural Revolution • Changes in Europe around 1000 set a foundation. • By 800’s peasant were using Iron plows to plow northern Europe. – Better than wooden plow used in the lighter soil in the south. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • New kind of harness allowing horses to be used instead of ox. – Much faster. • Could plow more land in one day, allowed for larger fields. • Manors who wanted to increase production cut down forest, drained swamps and reclaimed wetlands. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • Also to increase production peasant used a three-field system. – One field had grain – Second field had legume (peas and beans) • Added fertilizer to the soil • Added a protein to peasants diet. – Third was left unplanted • Increased the amount of land planted. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • With more food available the population tripled from 1100 to 1300. The revival of Trade. • Population grew and feudal warfare and foreign invasion declined. – People felt safer and began to travel more Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • The demand for goods from outside of Europe increased – Noble : Luxury Goods. – Peasant : Iron for tools. • Traders and Merchants formed caravans for safety. – Followed trade route that had little use of the pervious centuries. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • Along the trade routes, merchants trade for local goods. • Merchants would bring goods from other regions to centers to be shipped all over Europe. – Chinese Silk, Byzantine Gold Jewelry and Asian Spices and etc. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • Northern Europeans would pay these items with Honey, furs, cloth, tin and lead. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • Trade center became the first small cities. – Due to weather in Europe • Trade centers closed in Autumn. • Winter made trade route impassable. • Large cities developed in Northern Europe and Italy. – North – South of trade routes. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • Charters began to protect merchants. – Set out rights and privileges of the town. – Merchants paid the lord or a king a yearly fee or a large sum of money, maybe both. – One popular clause was with Serfs. • Anyone serf who lived in one of these cites for more than a one year would be come free. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • This was due to the increase in population size. Commercial Revolution. – As trade increase, use of money increased too. – Merchants began to issue credit to each other. • Arranged payment for goods. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • With the growth in business partnerships formed. – Group of merchants joining together. • Pooled funds to make large scale ventures • Insurance system developed to protect the merchant and shipments, – Protected against lost and damaged ships. • Underwriter would issue insurance on shipments Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • If lost or damaged underwriter would pay out. • If the shipment arrived with no issues on the insurance was lost. • System of credit developed. – Letters of credit and bills of credit. – A merchant would deposit money with a banker in his home city. The banker would issue a bill of exchange, which the merchant could exchange in a distant town for cash. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • The use of money changed medieval society – Undermined the manor/Feudal system – Lords had to exchange money for goods. • A shift to tenant farmers. – The paying of rent for land or farm help. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. The rise of the middle class. • The old social order changed over time. – By 1000 merchants, traders, and artisans formed a new class. • The middle class emerges – Between noble and peasant. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. – Middle class gained power and influence over time. • Guilds: Associations of artisans and merchants – Merchant guilds emerged first. • Decide how to spend funds in cities • Became resented by the artisans. – Artisans formed guilds. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • Struggle between artisan and merchant guilds led to riots in some cities. – Guilds could worked together to protect investments. • Prevented competition, Limited membership. – Had to be a member of a guild to work in a trade. • Protected quality, regulate work hours and set prices. Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • To become a member of a guild took many years of hard work. – Started at a young age. • 7 or 8 to become an apprentice. – Trainee – Received no pay. • Only received housing and food for guild master Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. – Journeymen: Salaried worker in the guild. • Low wages. Prevent competition. • Women in the Guilds. – Often worked in same trade as husbands and fathers. – Ribbonmaking and papermaking Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • Medieval towns became overcrowded. – People settled in surrounding fields. – Over time dwelling added second and third levels due to overcrowding. – Fire was a constant threat Sect.4 Economic recovery sparks change. • All towns and cities had a church with a steeple that could be seen for miles. • People lived in neighborhoods with similar backgrounds. • Towns were very busy during the day and deserted at night. • Dirty, smelly, noisy, and crowded, a perfect breeding ground for disease.