Name: ____________________________________________________________ Date: __________________________ Period ________ Cardiovascular System Review Ch. 17 - Blood 1. List several characteristics about blood including the tissue type, its pH, temperature, relative volume, and composition. 2. What are the 3 major functions of blood? Be able give examples of each. 3. Describe the composition of blood. BE SPECIFIC! 4. Name 3 plasma proteins and list the major function of each type. 5. Describe the structure of an erythrocyte. How does its structure support its function? 6. What is the function of hemoglobin in RBCs? What part of a hemoglobin molecule reacts with oxygen? Carbon dioxide? Describe the color changes it undergoes during loading and unloading of oxygen. What is oxyhemoglobin? Deoxyhemoglobin? 7. Define erythropoietin. 8. Where are the formed elements formed? What is this process called? 9. What hormone controls the formation of red blood cells? Explain the negative feedback loop it operates under. 10. Name the 5 types of leukocytes and list the major function of each type. 11. Describe the appearance of platelets and state their major function. Why should platelets not be called “cells”? 12. What does hemostasis accomplish? List the 3 steps. 13. List the 3 major phases of coagulation. Explain what initiates each phase and what the phase accomplishes. In what general way do the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of clotting differ? What ion is essential to virtually all stages of coagulation? 14. Explain how positive feedback operates during hemostasis. What step is involved? 15. Distinguish between an agglutinogen and an agglutinin. 16. How is your ABO blood type determined? 17. Define agglutination, and explain how it influences blood transfusions. 18. Distinguish between Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood. 19. Suppose your blood was found to be AB positive. What does this mean? (Think in terms of agglutinogens and agglutinins present or absent.) 20. What are 4 common blood disorders? Include what type of formed element they affect, a brief description, and at least one new thing you learned about the disorder. Ch. 18 – The Heart 21. Describe the location and position of the heart in the body. 22. What is the main function of the heart? 23. Describe the pericardium and distinguish between the fibrous and serous layers. 24. Which valves are considered atrioventricular (AV) valves? Semilunar (SL) valves? 25. The heart is a double pump. What does this mean? 26. Which layer of the heart is responsible for muscle contraction? 27. Why is the myocardium on the left side of the heart thicker? 28. Be able to identify the structures of the heart. 29. Trace the path of blood through the heart. 30. The cells of the heart are supplied with blood via the _________________________________. 31. Trace a drop of blood from the time it enters the right atrium until it enters the left atrium. What is this circuit called? 32. Define cardiac cycle, and list the events of one cycle. 33. What produces the heart sounds heard through a stethoscope? 34. Name the elements of the intrinsic conduction system of the heart in order, beginning with the pacemaker. What is the important function of this system? 35. Draw a normal ECG pattern. Label and explain the significance of it waves. 36. Draw the action potential graph associated with autorhythmic cells of the heart. Be able to explain what is happening at each stage. Ch. 19 – Blood Vessels 37. Distinguish between an artery, vein, and capillary. 38. How is the anatomy of capillaries and capillary beds well suited to their function? 39. Write an equation showing the relationship between peripheral resistance, blood flow, and blood pressure. 40. What is the function of valves in the heart and veins? 41. What is blood pressure? Differentiate between systolic and diastolic pressures. What is normal blood pressure for a young adult? 42. Describe the neural mechanisms responsible for controlling blood pressure.