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Nutrition and Health
Amy Jo Riggs, MS, RD
The Six Nutrients For Health
Carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Fats
 ___________
 Vitamins
 Water

Carbohydrates (CHO)

Compounds composed of single or multiple
_____________
– Simple Carbohydrates
– Complex Carbohydrates

Main source of energy for fueling body
 Body can store CHO as glycogen for later use
 60-65% of calories should come from CHO
– Need 100-130 grams/day for protein sparing

Provide 4 calories/gram
Simple Carbohydrates

These include monosaccharides and
disaccharides
 Recommend limiting _________ CHO in diet
 Foods that fall into this category
–
–
–
–
–
–
Cakes
Candy
Cookies
Pies
Soda
Table Sugar
Complex Carbohydrates

These include 2 types of polysaccharides
– Starches and Fiber

Recommend that majority of CHO in diet
come from complex CHO
 Foods that fall into this category include
–
–
–
–
Beans (black, kidney, refried)
Fruit, especially fresh fruit
________________ (fresh or frozen over canned)
Whole grains
• Whole wheat bread, pasta and cereals, brown rice, etc.
Importance of Dietary Fiber

Promotes feeling of fullness after eating
– Beneficial for weight loss/maintenance

Helps prevent _____________
– Prevents diverticulosis

Reduces blood cholesterol levels
– Reduces heart disease and stroke

Slows digestion and absorption of CHO
– Improves body’s handling of insulin and glucose

May reduce risk of colon cancer
Special Reasons to Pay Extra
Attention to Carbohydrates
Diabetes (Type I and Type II)
 Hypoglycemia
 Sports Nutrition
 __________ Control

Diabetes

This is high ________________ levels
– Fasting level > 140mg/dL

There are 2 types of diabetics
– Type I: insulin dependent; pancreas is not
producing insulin; typically in child/young adults
– Type II: non-insulin dependent; pancreas is
producing insulin but cells aren’t responding;
typically in overweight adults

Diet and exercise are the best, natural ways
to control blood sugar levels
Diabetic Diet

Carbohydrate Counting
– 15 grams of CHO = 1 CHO choice
– Diet will vary on individual
– Focus on complex CHO. Avoid sugar!

Low fat (esp. saturated fat)
 Lean Protein with all meals and snacks
 Portion Control
 Eating regular meals and regular times
– Do not skip meals!!!
Diabetic Diet

Carbohydrate Foods
– Starchy Foods
• Bread, pasta, rice, cereal
– Starchy Vegetables
• Potatoes, corn, peas, beans, yams
– Fruits and Fruit Juices
– Milk and _____________
– Sweets
• Cakes, cookies, ice cream, soda, etc
Hypoglycemia

This is low ________________
– Fasting level < 70mg/dL

Diet is the best way to treat this
condition
Hypoglycemic Diet
Eat 6 small meals per day
 Avoid simple CHO
 Avoid caffeine and alcohol
 Protein foods MUST be eaten with
meals and snacks
 Know how to properly treat low blood
sugar

Sports Nutrition

Athletes or individuals that exercise
regularly need to make sure their diet is
rich in CHO for several reasons:
– Energy
– Helps recovery from a hard workout or
event
– Replenishes glycogen stores after they
have been depleted from exercise
Weight Control

CHO can be a smart and healthy choice for
weight control when eaten properly
– Watch portion size
– Choose the right kind of CHO

CHO are not fattening per say; HOWEVER
– If one eats too many CHO in the diet, the body will
convert the glucose to fat and will store it in
adipose tissue
Proteins
Compounds composed of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
arranged in strands of amino acids
 15-20% of calories should come from
protein
 Protein in foods provide 4 calories/gram

Types of Proteins in Body
Enzymes
 Hormones
 Antibodies
 Cell Receptors
 Transporters
 Structural Components

Roles of Proteins in Body
Supports growth and maintenance
 Builds enzymes, hormones, antibodies
 Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
 Maintains acid-base balance
 Provides energy

Protein Foods
Meat, Poultry, Fish
 Cheese, Cottage cheese
 Nuts
 Peanut Butter
 Eggs
 Soy products such as Tofu

Special Reasons to Pay Extra
Attention to Protein Intake

Children
– Important due to growing

Diabetes
 Hypoglycemia
 Athlete/Exerciser
– Need more protein than sedentary individuals to
help rebuild muscle and tissue

Renal (kidney) Disease
Renal Disease
Individuals that suffer from renal
insufficiency have specific protein needs
 Before Dialysis

– Decrease protein in diet

During Dialysis
– Increase protein in diet
Fats
Lipids that are solid at room
temperature
 Main source of energy storage
 20-30% of calories should come from
fat
 Fat provides 9 calories/gram

Types of Lipids
Fatty Acids
 Triglycerides

– Storage form of fatty acid
Phospholipids
 Sterols

– Cholesterol
Usefulness of Fats
Fuel
 Storage of energy
 Protection from the environment
 Absorption of fat soluble vitamins
 Provides flavors and texture to foods
 Satiety

Different Types of Fats
Monounsaturated
 Polyunsaturated
 Essential Fatty Acids

– Omega 3
– Omega 6
Saturated
 Trans Fatty Acid

Monounsaturated Fats
These fats are considered healthy fats
 Sources of monounsaturated fats

– Canola Oil
– Olive Oil
Polyunsaturated Fats
These are considered healthier fats
 Sources of polyunsaturated fats

– Safflower Oil
– Sunflower Oil
– Corn Oil
Saturated Fats
These fats are the “bad” fats
 These are the fats that raise cholesterol
in the blood and lead to heart disease
 Sources of saturated fats

– Coconut Oil
– Butterfat
– Lard
Trans Fatty Acids
These are the “newer” discovery of bad fats
 Have unusual shapes that can arise when
polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated
 Sources of trans fat

–
–
–
–
–
Margarines and shortenings
Salad dressings and mayonnaise
Biscuits, cookies, crackers
Chips, doughnuts
Fried foods
Special Reasons to Pay Extra
Attention to Fat Intake
Heart Disease
 High Cholesterol
 Thrombosis
 Obesity
 Removal of Gallbladder

Heart Disease
Number 1 killer in USA
 A high fat diet causes arteries to clog
and build up plaque

High Cholesterol

Total Cholesterol
– < 200 mg/dL

LDL Cholesterol: “Bad”
– < 100 mg/dL

HDL Cholesterol “Healthy”
– > 60 mg/dL

Triglycerides
– < 150 mg/dL
Thrombosis
Stationary blood clot that closes off a
blood vessel
 Embolism

– A blood clot that breaks loose
• This leads to a heart attack or stroke depending
on where the breakage occurs
Obesity

High fat diets lead to increase risk of weight
gain
 Remember that fat has the most calories per
gram out of the 3 macronutrients
 Obesity increases the risk of
–
–
–
–
Diabetes
Heart disease/stroke
Hypertension
Mobility problesm
Removal of Gallbladder

If one has to have their gallbladder
removed
– They must follow a low fat diet
• The gallbladder stores bile
Nutrition Quackery
Nutrition Affects Everyone
Many people want to learn more about
nutrition
 The widespread appeal of nutrition
makes it more vulnerable to
misinformation and deception

What is Quackery?
Promotion for financial gain, of devices,
services, or products that alter or claim
to alter a human condition without proof
of safety or effectiveness
 Fraudulent claims may sound
reasonable and logical but they lack the
research support found in nutrition
science

How is Quackery Spread
Websites
 Telephone/telemarketing
 Newspaper
 Magazines
 Radio
 Television

Who to Ask for Nutrition Advice

Registered Dietitian (RD):
– Has educational background necessary to
deliver reliable nutrition advice and care
– Be cautious when someone states they are
a nutritionist
– Scientists:
• Scientist do research and lets remember that
research changes! Don’t put all your “beliefs”
into one basket.
What to Read for Sound
Nutrition Advice

Journals
– Journal of American Dietetics Association
(ADA)
– American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
– Nutrition Reviews
Weight Management
Tips to Reach a Healthy Weight

Assess your current behaviors
– Make a list of good and bad habits

Make a commitment
 Develop a plan
– Make sure it fits your schedule and your liking

Accept realistic weight loss goals
– Set short-term goals

Focus on health
Tips to Reach a Healthy Weight

Exercise
– Add physical activity to day to day routine






Don’t give into negative thoughts
Track your progress
Modify your environment
Find support
Don’t deprive yourself
Avoid fad diets
Tips to Reach a Healthy Weight

Don’t focus on the scale
– Muscle weighs more than fat
– Get your body fat measured
• DEXA Machine
– Measures lean mass
– Measures fat mass
– Measures bone density
• Skin folds
– Determines fat mass
Calculating Your Energy Needs

Women
– 655 + (4.4 x wt. in pounds) + (4.3 x ht. in inches) – (4.7 x age)

Men
– 66 + (6.2 x wt. in pounds) + (12.7 x ht. in inches) – (6.8 x age)

Note: this is just an estimate of your calorie
needs to carry out daily activity. It does not
account for exercise or strenuous work
Three Basic Keys to Healthy
Eating
Moderation
 Variety
 Wholesomeness
