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SS.A.2.4.7; SS.B.2.4.3; SS.A.1.4.2;
SS.B.2.4.1; SS.A.2.2.4; SS.A.2.4.4
Frankish Decline & Invaders
Carolingian Empire split in three after
Charlemagne’s death; Western Frankish, Middle,
Eastern Frankish kingdoms
800-900: western Europe invaded from 3 sides
Muslims attack from south, Magyars from east,
Vikings from north
Magyars: People from west Asia, moved into central
Europe and settle on plains in Hungary, invade West
 Vikings: Germanic Norsemen of Scandinavia
Invasions of Europe A.D.800-1000
The Vikings: Terror From The North
Invaded the European mainland in search of new trade,
treasures and adventure
Sacked villages and towns, destroyed churches, easily
handle small local armies
Warriors with excellent ship building skills, allowing
them to sail inland on rivers and attack
By 850, Vikings build settlements in Europe
910: western Frankish king gives Vikings lands at the
mouth of the River Seine, named Normandy
Frankish king required Vikings to convert to Christianity,
making them a part of European civilization—not the enemy
of it
The Vikings
Development of Feudalism
Lack of large, central governments makes it hard
for communities to defend themselves
Regular people turn to landowning aristocrats to
protect them in exchange for service, this system
is called Feudalism
Warriors swear loyalty to a land-owning leader,
fight for them—vassals
Leaders (Lords) would provide for vassal’s needs
The Feudal System
The Lord’s Land
The Art of War
Frankish warriors wore chain-mail armor,
throwing spears
Bigger horses, and development of stirrups,
allowed for armored soldiers, carrying long
lances to act as battering rams, from armored
horses—later known as knights
Eventually knights were base of aristocracy
Horses, weapons and armor=expensive; lords
give some land to knights in exchange for loyalty
Little trade in Europe, means land= $ & power
Weaponry of the Middle Ages
Feudal Society
To become a vassal, a man performs act of
homage to his lord
Land given to vassals, known as fief, become
political domain of that vassal (almost kingdom)
As Carolingian world collapses, fiefdoms rise
System becomes more complex, as vassals have
vassals who answer to them, who have vassals
The Feudal Contract: unwritten rules
determining the lord-vassal relationship
Nobility of the Middle Ages
Society dominated by men concerned with war
Nobles=kings, lords, dukes, counts, barons and
bishops who held large estates of land & power
Differences in wealth=differences in power
Young knights, with no land or responsibility, have
nothing to do but fight and train for war; giving rise to
tournaments where knights can show off skills
To stop abuses of power, Catholic Church
introduces an ideal of civility called chivalry
Chivalry: code of ethical behavior for knights to
uphold; etiquette; politeness
Class Work
On page 67, write and answer
questions 1-5