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Ch 9: Feudalism and Chivalry in Europe 1. After the Treaty of Verdun, groups invaded Europe from what directions? 2. The Vikings are from Scandanavia. What countries make up Scandanavia? What made Viking ships unique? What is your favorite Viking name? 3. What other names are the Vikings known by? As traders, farmers, and explorers, the Vikings made their ships from wood. What custom did the Vikings have when an important leader died? 4. During what centuries did the Vikings conquer European lands? Why did they stop their raids and plundering? 5. Vikings helmets did not have horns. Do not attempt to argue this. 6. Who was Leif Ericson’s father? As leader of the Vikings, where did he explore? 7. Where did the Magyars attack from? Where did the Muslims attack from? These attacks caused the need for protection. What developed to provide this protection? 8. What is feudalism? A lord (landowner) gives fiefs (land grants) in exchange for services (military service and food). Who were vassals? 9. Explain the feudal pyramid structure. If you repaid your fief with military service what were you called? 10. The feudal system classifies people into three social groups. What are these groups and who was in them? 11. The lord’s estate was called a manor. What is the serf’s responsibility on the manor? What was the lord’s responsibility on the manor? 12. Common features on a manor were the lord’s house, church, workshop, village, and pond (water source). How large were manors? Did manors have to trade for necessities? Why? 13. Peasants had to pay many taxes. What three organizations would they owe taxes to? Describe a typical serf cottage. Why was the peasant life expectancy 35 years old? Did serfs often try to better their lives? Why? 14. When did a knight’s education start? What were knights in training called at this age? Staying in the castle, learned courtly manners, chess, and sword fighting. 15. At what age did a knight in training become a squire? A squire was as servant to a knight, but not all squires made it to knighthood. What were some of the squire’s responsibilities? 16. When does a knight in training officially become a knight? 17. How many saddles did a knight have? What were they used for? What was the problem with chainmail armor? Why was a helmet the last thing a knight would usually put on? 18. How long was a typical sword? What was a morning star? 19. Other weapons included a dagger and battle axe. How would knights be able to identify each other on the battlefield? 20. What new military tactic did feudal armies use to attack castles and manors? Name the 7 siege weapons and explain what was each one used for. 21. When feudal lords start fighting with each other what types of armies do they raise? How did knights buy weapons? 22. What was the most prestigious event at a tournament for knights? 23. Knights followed a code of chivalry. What was the code? What three masters did the knights defend? 24. Kings would live in castles, but sometimes these castles housed feudal lords. What was the initial problem with castle building materials? 25. Castle construction was geared toward protection. Towers were rounded so that projectiles would glance off and iron gates were the norm. What are the names for the courtyard, house, and iron gate in a castle? 26. What was the main concern when determining where to build a castle? What is the big ditch around the castle called? 27. When did people from the middle ages eat their meals? How did they eat? 28. Middle Ages men were expected to entertain their ladies (not much has changed, huh?). Who were the French knights fighting in the famous poem, The Song of Roland? What was a troubadour? 29. Who wrote “The Art of Courtly Love in 1174?” Pick your favorite rule of courtly love.