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Feudalism Charlemagne & the Carolingian Empire • Charlemagne ruled for 28 years… from 786 – 814 A.D. • He not only ruled this Frankish (mostly France) Kingdom… he also expanded it! • By 800 A.D. Charlemagne had become the Roman Emperor (remember… bringing those 3 elements together!) • In 841 A.D. Charlemagne died and the Carolingian Empire fell apart! Why did it fall apart? Grandson #1 (Western Frankish Lands) Charlemagne Grandson #2 (Middle Frankish Lands)Grandson #3 (East Frankish Lands) • Divisions among his grandsons… • Local #’s gained power… • & Invasions broke apart the rest. - Invasions • Muslims – Southern Europe and France • Magyars (W. Asia) – Central/Western Europe, Hungary • Vikings (Norsemen of Scandinavia, Germanic, LOVE adventure, war, trade) – most far reaching attacks of the time Vikings • The Vikings were warriors! They sacked Villages and Towns… destroyed Churches… and defeated small local armies easily! • The Vikings became part of European Civilization… starting in 911 AD Frankish rulers gave a group of Vikings land in France (Normandy). They then converted them to Christianity. • Their ships were long and skinny… allowing them to use rivers to move far inland! Feudalism • Because of the Vikings causing problems AND because of the big Empires (Carolingian) falling apart, FEUDALISM was used to keep control under one central government. • In order to survive… Feudalism is born! Warrior Leader • Feudalism is circular… Warriors swear an oath of loyalty to a leader and fight for them. Leaders in turn take care of the warriors needs. • During the Middle Ages, Land = Wealth… is the greatest gift a Lord could give their Vassal was land! A grant of land is called a FIEF. • Knights had great social prestige as the armored cavalry that dominated warfare in Europe for almost 500 years. Hi! I’m Feudalism! Draw me on the back of your note sheet! Kings Land $, Loyalty, Support Lords $, Loyalty, Support Land Knights $, Loyalty, Labor Protection Serfs KING LORDS (King’s Vassals) The Lords Vassals You keep all of this strait with a Feudal Contract! That is a set of unwritten laws that determined the relationship between the Lords and his Vassal. Knights Just to Clarify: This can get CONFUSING!!! Vassals were NOT slaves, Kings, Lords, Vassals, and Knights were free men who traded services Nobility • Nobles LOVED war in the Middle Ages! Their main concern was warfare! • Kings, Dukes, Counts, Barons, Bishops, and Archbishops all held considerable power! Chivalry • Chivalry is a code of ethics and an ideal of civic behavior that knights were supposed to uphold. • EXAMPLES from the Code: – Defend the Church – Defend defenseless people – Treat captives as honored guests – Fight ONLY for glory • Always followed?........................ NO! Women of Aristocracy • They could own land (but usually didn’t)… managed the estate (house)… ,took care of financial accounts… and kept up with supplies. • The Expectation of Women: Women should be subservient to their husbands. • The Reality of Women: Many women were strong and dominated their husbands!