http://www.animationlibrary.com/search/?keywords=recycle BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 3-3 See a video clip about CYCLES IN NATURE - Chap 3 http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/Cycles.htm ENERGY & MATTER Energy is not the only thing that moves through the ecosystem. Atoms are never destroyed . . . only transformed. Take a deep breath. The atoms you just inhaled may have been inhaled by a dinosaur millions of years ago. http://educ.queensu.ca/~fmc/august2004/pages/dinobreath.html 4 ATOMS make up 95% of the body in most organisms CARBON OXYGEN HYDROGEN NITROGEN The same molecules are passed around again and again within the biosphere in BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES ___________________________ WATER CYCLE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE = ___________________ http://www.urbanrivers.org/water_cycle.html WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT? Makes up 60-70% of your body Oxygen and Hydrogen are found in all the building blocks of cells ________________________: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids Hydrogen in H2O supplies protons (H+) & electrons for_______________ photosynthesis http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.htm WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT? SOLVENT Water is a good _________________ Many molecules dissolve in water so it provides a place for chemical reactions to happen Water doesn’t change temperature easily so it helps with __________________ HOMEOSTASIS http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.htm WATER CYCLE evaporation condensation http://www.radio-canada.ca/jeunesse/fd6/000_images/cat/c_buee_c.gif http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/hmv1/watrshed/Etrans.htm The evaporation of water from the surface of plant leaves TRANSPIRATION = ________________ The return of water to the surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail, etc. = ____________________ PRECIPITATION Image edited from: http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/water.html WATER CYCLE PH ONLINE LINK Put in code: cbp-2033 Choose Start CARBON CYCLE CO2 in atmosphere CO2 in ocean BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 4 main CARBON reservoirs in BIOSPHERE 1.In ____________ atmosphere as CO2 gas ocean 2.In _______ as dissolved CO2 gas 3.On _______ in organisms, rocks, soil land Underground as coal & petroleum (fossil 4.__________ fuels) and calcium carbonate in rocks CO2 in atmosphere CO2 in Ocean BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 Where does CO2 in atmosphere come from? CO2 in atmosphere CO2 in Ocean Volcanic activity 1.________________ Human activity (burning fossil fuels) 2.______________ 3._________________ Cellular respiration Decomposition of dead organisms 4.____________ BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? BUILDING BLOCKS of cells: Found in all the _______________ carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids Image by Riedell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? Carbon in CO2 provides the atoms for GLUCOSE production during __________ PHOTOSYNTHESIS __________________... the fuel that all living things depend on. http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0076.JPG http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpg NITROGEN CYCLE Section 3-3 N2 in Atmosphere NO3and NO2- NH3 BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT? NITROGEN BASES __________________make DNA and RNA ATP Adenine (nitrogen base) is used in _______ acids (proteins) Makes AMINO part of amino _________ Image by Riedell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm Image by Riedell 79% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN gas (N2) CAN’T use the nitrogen gas BUT we _____ we breathe! The bond in N2 gas is so strong it can only be broken by lightning _______________ Volcanic activity _______________ few special bacteria ____________________ Image by Riedell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm Image by Riedell in the soil Bacteria that live ______________ symbiotic and in _________ relationships with legumes plants called _________, take nitrogen from the atmosphere and AMMONIA (NH3) a form turn it into ______________, that is usable by plants. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED _________________ NITROGEN FIXATION http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/images/101nodules21.gif Other bacteria in the soil convert NITRATES (NO3- ) ammonia into ________________ & NITRITES (NO2-) & _________________ which plants can also use. The nitrogen we need for proteins, ATP, and nucleic acids comes from the FOOD ___________ WE EAT NOT THE AIR ___________ we breathe! Image from: http://www.utdallas.edu/images/departments/biology/misc/gonzalez-image.jpg and http://www.cibike.org/CartoonEating.gif modified by Riedell NITROGEN CYCLE Section 3-3 N2 in Atmosphere NO3and NO2- NH3 BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 in the soil Bacteria that live ______________ also carry out the reverse process NITRATES NITROGEN GAS & NITRITES ___________ → _____________ . THIS PROCESS IS CALLED DENITRIFICATION _________________ Image from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Producers absorb phosphate from soil and water Weathering wears away rocks and sediments and releases phosphate into soil and water Sediments form “new land” to complete cycle Phosphate moves through food web Phosphate returns to soil and water from waste or decomposition Phosphorus cycle is only biogeochemical cycle that does NOT cycle through the atmosphere ______________ BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 WHY IS PHOSPHORUS IMPORTANT? Makes DNA and RNA Transfers energy as ATP Makes phospholipids for cell membranes Image by Riedell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm Image by Riedell SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one another and the environment. 9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems. • Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions. Examples: Fluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter) Biogeochemical cycles SOUTH DAKOTA CORE EARTH SCIENCE STANDARDS Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and processes of the Earth system. 9-12.E.1.1. Students are able to explain how elements and compounds cycle between living and non-living systems. • Diagram and describe the N, C, O and H2O cycles. • Describe the importance of the N, C, O and H2O cycles to life on this planet. Examples: water cycle including evaporation, cloud formation, condensation. SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS EARTH SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and processes of the Earth system. 9-12.E.1.1.A Students are able to explain how elements and compounds cycle between living and non-living systems. • Diagram and describe the P, S, and Ca cycles. Core High School Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: High school students performing at the BASIC level predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles; predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. explain how H20, N, C, and O cycle between living and non-living systems; explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. explain how H20, N, C, and O cycle between living and non-living systems; give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth.