과학과 문명 • Introduction - 소재의 중요성 신소재공학의 내용 소재의 발전 재료의 분류 • 첨단 세라믹 소재와 응용 - Introduction - 제품별 종류 - 기능별 종류 INTRODUCTION 1. 재료(소재)의 중요성 ◎ 인류의 역사 ≡ 재료와 문명 / 문화의 관계로 표현되어 왔다. (근대화까지) Stone ages → Bronze ages → Iron ages → <현대> Sophisticated materials ◎ 성장동력산업분야 → 6T IT, NT, BT, ET, ST, CT 첨단소재의 기반 실제 현장의 요구, 문제점 ≡ 소재의 어려움에 봉착 ex) 대일 무역 적자 INTRODUCTION 2. 신소재(재료)공학의 내용 Structure Properties Depend on Performance Influence ex) Graphite 와 Diamond 3. 소재의 비약적인 발전 - 초전도체의 개발 - 초고속 인터넷 : 광케이블 - 286 → 386 → 486 → Pentium → Multi Core CPU의 비약적 발전 - Automobile industry : 경량화 ( Fe → Al → Mg 합금 ) : 외연기관 : Hybrid 차(전기자동차)의 현실화 INTRODUCTION 4. 재료의 분류 ◎ Based on atomic bonds and structure 1) Metal : 자유전자에 의한 금속 결합 → valence electron 들이 핵 (parent atom)에 묶여 있지 않고 자유롭게 이동하면서 전체를 결합시키고 있다. - high electrical and thermal conductivity ← free valence electrons - 불투명, 광택, 반사력 ← valence electron 이 빛을 받으면 전자기적으로 진동하면서 나타나는 현상 - 일반적으로(비교적), 무거움(밀도↑), 가공성이 높다 2) Polymer : 비금속 원소들 (주기율 오른쪽 윗부분)의 공유/배위 결합 → 전자친화력이 높은 비금속 원소들이 공유 / 배위결합을 하면서 커다란 분자 (macromolecules)를 구성한다. 이 큰 분자체는 반복되는 단위분자 (mer)로 구성되어 있고, 이것이 반복되면서 Polymer를 이룬다. - 가볍다 : low density thermal & electrical insulator 반사력은 없고, 투과력이 있다 (적어도 thin film에서) 유연성, 변형이 쉽다 이것들은 모두 일반적 or 상대적 성질들이다 ! INTRODUCTION 3) Ceramic : 비금속 무기 화합물 → 비금속 원소와 금속 원소의 화합물이다. 따라서 그 결합형태나 특징이 매우 다양하다. ex) insulator ↔ superconductor - 종류 : 산화물, 탄화물, 질화물 등 - 일반적 특성 : hard, brittle, high wear–resistance high temperature performance … ◎ Based on electrical conductivity conductivity [S / m] 104 10-9 Insulators Semiconductors Conductors 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Automotive 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Automotive Sensor 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : 자동차용 플러그 Spark Plug/Glow Plug Ceramic Type Glow Plug 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Semiconductor Components IC Package (Ceramics) Pin grid array (PGA) Package for crystal device and SAW filter, CSP type Package for crystal device and SAW filter, SMD type Package for camera modules 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Semiconductor Components IC Package (Ceramics) Package for MEMS and various sensors Side blaze package Quad flat package Package for flip chips 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Semiconductor Components IC Package (Ceramics) Package for high frequency Package for opto-devices Custom package Thin film wiring substrate 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Semiconductor Components IC Package (Ceramics) Substrate for probe card LTCC/RF module LTCC/multilayer substrate 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Electronic Components Derivative filter LTCC RF parts / Diplexer antenna coupler filter Dielectric resonator, dielectric substrate, and dielectric structure 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Electronic Components Ultrasonic wave oscillator device Ultrasonic wave sensor Ultrasonic wave washing unit 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Medical Products Bio Ceramics Typical Medical Applications • • • • • • • • • • Prostheses Surgical Instruments Diagnostic Equipment Consumables Instrumentation Blood Separation X-Ray Equipment Electronic Implants Electrophoresis Blood Flow • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Foetal Heart Monitors Medical Imaging Nebulisation Catheters Pacemakers Cataract Removal Ultrasonic Scalpels DNA Testing Heart pumps Blood analysis Blood flow sensors Air in-line sensors Bone stimulators Bone screws Cochlear implants Laparoscopic surgical devices RF ablation instruments 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Medical Products Bio Ceramics Bone filling material Application This product is an artificial bone used to fill, repair, and cure the lost or empty space in a bone caused by diseases such as a bone fractures or tumors or by the treatment of diseases. Material It is made of a compound ceramic of hydroxyl apatite and tricalcium phosphate. Feature Products of various structures, shapes, and sizes that suit the space to be filled are available whenever they are necessary because they are already packaged after being sterilized. Made-to-order products that are manufactured to fit the lost or empty space of the bones of individual patients are also available. 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Medical Products Bio Ceramics Artificial femoral head Application This product is an artificial femur head that is used in combination with the femur stem of an artificial hip joint Material Zirconia or alumina Feature Because this product is finished with fine surface roughness and with high strength and precision and because the amount of wear of the polyethylene socket is small, longer product life than that of the conventional metal artificial femoral head can be expected. 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Medical Products Bio Ceramics Bone paste Application This product is a bone filler in paste-form for which the form can be changed according to the part, such as the lost space or fracture of a bone, for which bone transplant is necessary. Material It is a mixture of powders (quad-calcium phosphate and anhydrous calcium hydrogen phosphate) and a hardening solution (dextran sulfate sodium solution). Feature When used, the powders and hardening solution are mixed to create a paste-form mixture that can fill in the empty space of a bone that is to be repaired. The mixture becomes hydroxyl apatite after hardening 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Medical Products Bio Ceramics Oxygen concentrator for medical use “Sansomate-3E” Oxygen concentrator for medical use “Sansomate-5L” 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Aerospace Typical Aerospace Applications • • • • • • • • • • • • Instrumentation Control Systems Engine Build Engine Refurbishment Engine Monitoring Missile Guidance Systems Satellite Positioning Equipment Fuel Level Sensors Gyroscopes Vibration Sensors DLC Jet Engine Components Micro-electronic packages used in sensor devices 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Security & Defence Typical Applications • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Dipping Sonar Sonar Buoys Submarine & Surface Sonar Torpedo Guidance Chemical Agent Monitors Image Intensifiers (Night Vision) Laser Range Finders Infra-Red Detectors Body Armour Vehicle Armour Proximity Switches Scanners Electronic Counter Measures Decoys Towed Arrays Airport Security Systems Gyroscopes Finger print scanners / sensors 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Power Generation & Distribution Typical Applications • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vacuum Switch Tubes Semiconductor Switch Housings Stand Off Insulators Cable Insulators Fuses High Pressure Cable Interconnects Radiation Detector Components Insulating Ceramics for poly-crystaline silicon growth Ceramic rollers for solar panel flat glass substrate production Cooling passages for Gas Turbines (Turbine Blades & Vanes ceramic Cores) Fuel Cell Components Vacuum Interrupters Power Distribution Power Supply (Insulators) Power Transmission Lines Gas Meters Power Transmission Oil Well Submersible Pumps 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Solar Energy 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Heat-Resistant Product Application Orifices and nozzles used for welding machines, such as CO2 and TIB, and air plasma cutting machines are manufactured. Material Mainly alumina, and KP-84 and KP-921 that are resistant to heat shock are often used. Features Because the product is resistant to thermal shock and excels in electric insulation, it is used by the major manufacturers of welding machines globally. Parts for welding machine 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Physical Wear-Resistant Product Balls and rollers for bearings Capstan Application This bearing spherical ball is used for machine tools, such as spindles that rotate at high speeds and for semiconductor manufacturing equipment that can be damaged by metal dust. It is also used in a special environment, such as in hightemperature chemicals. Material EC-141 manufactured from silicon nitride with the special gaspressure sintering method. Features It excels in mechanical strength and rolling fatigue life. Application It is used in the process for wiredrawing of copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Material Mainly KP-95 and KP-990 of alumina are used, but EC-141 of silicon nitride may be used, depending on the application. Features Since it is very resistant to wear in comparison with a metal capstan, its contact surface with wire rods is difficult to wear down, and, therefore, its precision can be maintained for a long time. 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Physical Wear-Resistant Product Application The mixer faucet is used for the single lever-type faucet of a household washbasin, and the ceramic disk is used only for performing thermo-control or turning the faucet on/off. Material Mainly KP-95 of alumina that excels in wear resistance is used. Features The product has optimal air-tightness and sliding characteristics enabled by the press work of complicated shapes and the control of the precision and roughness of the lapping surface. Mixer faucet and ceramic disk Application This product is used for solenoid valves, air cylinders, etc. Material Mainly KP-95 of alumina is used. Features The product is often used in combination with another identical product. It is designed so that the flatness and roughness of the combined surfaces are finished optimally to thereby have excellent sliding characteristics. Air switchover valve 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Physical Wear-Resistant Product Application This product is used to seal the liquid in the water pump rotor of vehicles, marine vessels, etc. Material Mainly alumina is used. KP-95 is used for general purposes and UHA-99 that is chemical-resistant is used for special purposes. Features It excels in heat-resistance, wear-resistance, and chemicalresistance. In addition, it can control the roughness of the lapping surface with high precision. Sealing Application This product is a nozzle that discharges abrasives for sandblasting of glass, natural stone, or metal. Material KP-92 of alumina that is wear-resistant and a composite material of alumina and zirconia are used. Features The discharge internal diameter, length, and external diameter of the nozzle vary, depending on the use of the product. Sandblast nozzle 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Physical Wear-Resistant Product Ceramic liner and chip Application The ceramic liner and chip are used to line the slip plane of places where granules, slurry, or minerals are delivered, or of storage facilities. The product is used in steelworks, power plants, glass factories, etc. Material KP-95 of alumina that is wear-resistant is used. Zirconia and silicon nitride are also used. Features Products ranging from tile-form ones, of which the sizes are 5, 10, and 20 mm, to tubular ones for ventilation pipes are designed and manufactured as needed. Application The product is used as a mixing or grinding machine in academic to industrial purposes in pottery and chemical factories that manufacture glass, enamel, ceramics, and pigments. Material It is made of KP-95 of alumina. Features It has high strength and shock-resistance. In addition, it excels in wear-resistance and chemical stability. Pot mill 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Physical Wear-Resistant Product Liner brick for ball mill Parts for metal molds Application The product is used for fine grinding mills, such as ball mills, tube mills, and vibrational mills, in order to highly maintain the purity of materials to be ground. Material It is made of Corundit-W basis material of which the main component is α-alumina. Features Because the amount of wear of the product is considerably small in comparison with that of normal ceramic bricks or natural stones, the amount of worn brick components to be mixed in the ground material is small, and, therefore, the purity of the ground material can be highly maintained. Application The product is used mainly for punching materials of lead frame punching metal molds and ESD free jig. Material Other than zirconia UTZ-33, conductive zirconia (KGS-20) that can be wire-cut is used. Features It has been revealed that the life of the product is three to five times longer than that of the ultra-hard punching material. 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Chemical Wear-Resistant Product Application This plunger pump is used for agrochemical spraying, washing machines, and artificial dialysis. Material KP-990 of alumina, zirconia, etc., is used. Features Since chemically stable ceramics are used, corrosion of the product is difficult and it has a long life. In addition, even when it is used for medical purposes, the ceramics do not dissolve, which ensures safety Plunger pump Application This product is used as a regulator of fluids at chemical plants. Material When resistance to chemicals, such as alkalis and acids, and resistance to corrosion are required, alumina UHA-99 is used. When resistance to heat is required, silicon nitride EC-141 is used. Features Both alumina and silicon nitride are ground with high precision and each part has high system accuracy. Fluid control valve 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Heat and Wear Resistant Product Application This product is a roll for manufacturing tubes and molding. Material Silicon nitride (EC-141) Features Since the sputter does not cling to the roll, high-quality products can be manufactured. Since the product is resistant to heat, wear, and thermal shock, its life can be extended. Squeeze roll 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Electric Insulator Application This product supports all stud-type and flat-type silicon rectifiers as an electric semiconductor package for diodes, thyristors, and GTOs. Material It is blazed with a copper block via alumina HA-92, BA-903, kovar, and 42 alloys. Features It has excellent resistance to thermal shock, electric insulation properties, high mechanical strength, and air-tightness. Vessel for silicon rectifier Vacuum switch vessel Application This product is used as a vessel for the vacuum switches of electric current breakers. Material The product has a structure in which alumina HA-92 of which the edge face and external face are metalized is blazed with the central axis (copper) and the terminal block via kovar and 42 alloys. Features Since it excels in electric insulation properties, air-tightness, mechanical strength, and durability, high-temperature exhaust is possible. Since the product also excels in dielectric strength, it can be made smaller than glass vessels. 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Electric Insulator Drawing terminal Mica ceramics Application This product is used for equipment that must be highly reliable, such as vacuums, electric power systems, vehicles, and LPG tankers. Material he product has a structure in which alumina HA-92 of which the edge face and external face are metalized is blazed with the central axis (copper) and the terminal block via kovar and 42 alloys. Features Since it has high electric insulation properties, it can be used under a high current and high voltage. Application This product is used for insulating plates, jigs for insulation, and parts used at a high temperature that metal products cannot substitute. Material It is a sintered compact of synthetic mica including fluorine. Features Since dry cutting is applicable, it is suitable for small-lot production and manufacturing of special-form products. It can be used at a high temperature of up to 1,100 degrees Celsius, and has excellent properties: a dielectric breakdown voltage of 20 kV/mm. 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Product For Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment Application Chucking parts, such as silicon wafers, liquid crystal panels, etc. Material Alumina (KP-95, KP-990, KP-999, etc.) Features The finish processing of the asperity of the surface can be ordered by the unit of micrometer, according to the processing equipment to be used. Products with a size of up to 12 inches can be manufactured. Vacuum chuck plate Application Chucking parts, such as silicon wafers, liquid crystal panels, etc. Material Alumina (KP-92, etc.) Features The surface finish processing, internal structure, and gas flow can be designed, according to the processing equipment to be used. Products with a size of up to 12 inches can be manufactured. Static chuck plate 첨단 세라믹소재와 응용 : Electric Equipment Product Application This product is used as the heat source of soldering irons, hotwater toilet seats, and hot-water heaters of 24-hour bathrooms. Material Inside the layer of alumina sheets, a high-melting point metal is buried, and the layer and the metal are sintered together. Features Since the resistance wiring is inside the ceramics, this heater excels in resistance to chemicals, wire breakage, and deterioration with age. It is highly reliable. 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