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NBA or NFL?
 36 have been accused of spousal abuse
 7 have been arrested for fraud
 19 have been accused of writing bad checks
 117 have directly or indirectly bankrupted at
least 2 businesses
 3 have done time for assault
 71 cannot get a credit card due to bad credit
 14 have been arrested on drug-related charges
 8 have been arrested for shoplifting
 21 currently are defendants in lawsuits,
 84 have been arrested for drunk driving in the
last year
WHAT THE ?!!!
Neither, the answer is the 535 members of
the United States Congress
WWII…some numbers
55 million dead (1/2 civilians massacres/
famines/ Holocaust)
 Germany 5 million
 China 13 million

Japan 2 million

Great Britain 400,000

US – soldiers 292,000; 6,000 civilians

Poland – 6 million (3million Jews)
 ***Soviet Union – 27 million***
–1.5 million were Jews
War in Europe
Sept 1st, 1939 Germany invades
Poland, “Blitzkrieg” or lightening war is
used
Great Britain and France declare war
The USSR was neutral, Stalin and Hitler
had already agreed to divide up Poland
British and French troops waited along
the Maginot Line for an attack, the
“Phony War” ensued…Sitzkrieg
War in Europe
Sept 1st, 1939 Germany invades
Poland, “Blitzkrieg” or lightening war is
used
Great Britain and France declare war
The USSR was neutral, Stalin and Hitler
had already agreed to divide up Poland
British and French troops waited along
the Maginot Line for an attack, the
“Phony War” ensued…Sitzkrieg
Hitler II
Hitler dreamed of uniting a German
speaking people into a German Empire or
“Reich”
He believed Aryans were the master race
He wanted to enforce racial “purification” by
getting rid of Jews, Slavs, and non-whites
He wanted lebensraum or living space for
Germans
Hitler played on German fears of massive
unemployment and communism, yet he
blamed the Jews, and promised to return
Germany to a position of power
Hitler Youth…10-18 yrs old
1936 million members
 "My program for educating
youth is hard. Weakness must
be hammered away. In my
castles of the Teutonic Order a
youth will grow up before which
the world will tremble. I want a
brutal, domineering, fearless,
cruel youth. Youth must be all
that. It must bear pain. There
must be nothing weak and gentle
about it....That is how I will
create the New Order." -- Adolf
Hitler, 1933
DO NOW:
1. What kind of people become
bullies?
2. How do bullies influence other
people’s lives?
3. What is likely to happen if a bully
rises to power in a country?
Fascism
Extreme Nationalism
Focus on or looking to the glory of the
past, big public rallies or events
Glorification of war, strong armies, etc.
Forceful or Charismatic leaders
Militaristic Expansionism
Interest of the state put ahead of the
individual
Glorification of the leader
Anticommunist
Benito Mussolini
Disgruntled Italian WWI Veteran,
Powerful Speaker
Played on fears of economic collapse
and communism
Oct. 1922 he marched on Rome with
his “black shirts”
The Italian King gave in and Mussolini
was called “IL Duce” or the leader
He crushed all opposition and made
Italy a totalitarian state

Essential Questions:
What types of governments came to
power in Russia, Italy ,Germany and
Japan after WWI?
What were the examples of Axis
aggression in Europe and Asia?
What was the plight of Jews in Hitler’s
Third Reich?
How did the United States respond to
the outbreak of war in 1939?
What brought the United States into
Dictators Threaten World Peace
The Treaty of Versailles caused
anger and resentment
Germany was blamed for WWI,
stripped of its’ colonies and
forced to pay reparations
The USSR resented the carving
up of parts of Russia (Ex.
Poland, Latvia, Estonia, and
Lithuania
The world post WWI
New democracies with no democratic
foundation (Germany, Austria, Italy,
Czech., and Romania)
Huge debts and effects of Great
Depression
Treaty of Versailles unfair
– Lands carved up and “sold off”
NATIONALISM
New leaders came to power on the
promise of restoring nations to power
1933 Adolf Hitler rose to power in
Germany through the Nazi party (National
Socialist German Worker’s Party)
FUHRER: “leader” or “guide”
NAZISM: political movement based upon
extreme nationalism and racism
Stalin Transforms the USSR
Joseph Stalin “Man of Steel” took over after
Lenin’s death in 1924
He wanted to create a perfect Communist
state
He pushed for industrial and agricultural
growth
With his 5 year plans the USSR became the
world’s second largest industrial power
Stalin purged or killed 8-13 million people
who threatened his power
By 1939 Stalin had established complete
control and created a totalitarian state
Adolf Hitler
Born in Austria in 1889 he took the
name of his stepfather
Went to Vienna to pursue an art career
Served in WWI, was wounded and
gassed
In 1919 he joined the National Socialist
German Workers Party ( Nazis)
Organized an unsuccessful “Putsch”
in 1923
While in prison wrote Mein Kampf or
“My Struggle”
Called himself Der Fuhrer or “ the
Leader”
The Spanish Civil War
A Prelude of War to Come
In 1936 a group of army officers led
by Francisco Franco rebelled
against the government
About 3,000 Americans went to
fight against the Fascist, “The
Abraham Lincoln Battalion”
Hitler and Mussolini aided Franco,
after 500,000 lives were lost Franco
became dictator in 1939
Ch 16 Sec 2- The War in Europe
What were Hitler’s motives for
expansion?
What were the Blitzkrieg tactics
used against Poland and
Western Europe?
What were the first battles of
WWII?
Nazis in Power
Many German men who were out of
work joined Hitler’s private army, the
Brown Shirts
By mid 1932, the Nazis had a majority
in the Reichstag and in 1933 Hitler was
appointed Chancellor
Hitler destroyed individual rights and
free press
He promised to create a “Third Reich”
which would last a thousand years
Mein Kampf 1925 and 1927
Nationalism, Racism, and
Expansion
“Secure for the German people the land
and soil which they are entitled on this
earth”… “the might of a victorious sword”
Unite all German speaking people in a
Great German Empire (“Third Reich”)
Master “Aryan” race
Lebensraum: more living space
Hitler II
Hitler dreamed of uniting a German
speaking people into a German Empire or
“Reich”
He believed Aryans were the master race
He wanted to enforce racial “purification” by
getting rid of Jews, Slavs, and non-whites
He wanted lebensraum or living space for
Germans
Hitler played on German fears of massive
unemployment and communism, yet he
blamed the Jews, and promised to return
Germany to a position of power
Hitler Youth…10-18 yrs old
1936 million members
 "My program for educating
youth is hard. Weakness must
be hammered away. In my
castles of the Teutonic Order a
youth will grow up before which
the world will tremble. I want a
brutal, domineering, fearless,
cruel youth. Youth must be all
that. It must bear pain. There
must be nothing weak and gentle
about it....That is how I will
create the New Order." -- Adolf
Hitler, 1933
DO NOW
WHAT IS APPEASEMENT?
Rome and Berlin Form the
Axis
In 1935 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia
In 1936 Germany and Italy formed the
Axis
Japanese Militarists
In the 1930’s Nationalist Militarist were
taking control of the Imperial Government of
Japan led by Hideki Tojo
Japan Attacks Manchuria
Japan needed iron, coal, and petroleum to
support its emerging empire
In 1931 Japan attacked the Chinese
providence of Manchuria for its mineral
resources
By 1937 Japan controlled all of China’s
coastal areas…300,000 dead in Nanking
Massacre
The Unites States was warned that the OpenDoor Policy of trading with China would end
The US warned Japan and cut exports of
steel and oil to Japan, while sending aid to
China
The Rape of Nanking: Thousands of victims
were beheaded, burned, bayoneted, buried alive, or disemboweled.
Between December 1937 and March 1938 at least 369,366
Chinese civilians and prisoners of war were slaughtered by the
invading troops. An estimated 80,000 women and girls were
raped; many of them were then mutilated or murdered
WWII…some numbers
55 million dead (1/2 civilians massacres/
famines/ Holocaust)
 Germany 5 million
 China 13 million

Japan 2 million

Great Britain 400,000

US – soldiers 292,000; 6,000 civilians

Poland – 6 million (3million Jews)
 ***Soviet Union – 27 million***
–1.5 million were Jews
Road to WWII in Europe…
German aggressions
– Hitler becomes Chancellor
– Pulls out of League
– Remilitarization
– Nuremberg Laws
– LEBENSRAUM Rhineland, Anschluss
(Austria), Sudetenland and Czech…
Appeasement (Chamberlain and Churchill)
POLAND!!! It’s on!!!
American Isolationism
Americans wanted to stay out of future
conflicts
1930’s Neutrality Acts outlawed arm sales or
loans to nations at war
FDR sent arms to China during Civil War
 In 1937 FDR urged a “Quarantine” of
aggressor nations…criticism caused him to
stand down
“This nation will remain a neutral nation, but
I cannot ask that every American remain
neutral in thought as well”
FDR in Aug. 1939
Neutrality Acts
1935
– prohibited export of “arms, ammunition, &
implements of war” to foreign, warring nations
1937
– warring nations could get any item except arms
1939
– lifted arms embargo, putting all trade with
warring nations under terms of “cash-&-carry”
• any item could be sold as long as it was immediately
paid for
HOW DOES POLICY CHANGE? WHY?
And so…
Any questions or review?
HW How U.S. goes from Neutrality to
Intervention
Rest of class…Elie Wiesel and the
Holocaust
Axis Aggression
In 1936 Hitler marched troops into the
Rhineland a demilitarized area of W.
Germany
Early in 1938 Hitler annexed Austria
(The Anschluss)
In 1938 Hitler demanded the
Sudetenland, a section of
Czechoslovakia inhabited by ethnic
Germans
Axis Aggression II
Great Britain and France appease Hitler
1938 Munich Pact – Neville Chamberlain
signed an agreement with Hitler giving up
the Sudetenland
1938 Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia
1939 Hitler signs a Non Aggression Pact
with Stalin and the USSR
Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to
commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and
himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. He
said:
My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British
Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace
with honor. I believe it is peace for our time.
1. Psychological impact of another war
2. Fear of strategic bombing
3. Fear of Stalin and Communism
perceived as GREATER threat
4. Economic impact of war
5. Assumption that Hitler was a rational
person
6. While GB has larger Navy, they were
behind in air and land power
+
APPEASEMENT
Stalin
 In 1939, as Hitler is busy invading
eastern Europe, Stalin begins to
forcefully taking back Soviet lands
lost in Treaty of Versailles:
– Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
– Finland…”the most decent and
workable little democracy in Europe”
“STALIN reveals himself as
the same stamp as
Hitler!”
Meanwhile…
April 7, 1940: a leading German
newspaper announced… “GERMANY IS
READY. EIGHTY MILLION PAIRS OF
GERMAN EYES ARE TURNED UPON
THE FUHRER”
Hitler then turns his eyes on the rest of
Europe…
The Formula of World War II
Results of World War I +
Treaty of Versailles x
Disgruntled Austrian/German Man with a
Charlie Chaplain Mustache +
Fascism & Weak
Governments/Economies +
Appeasement =
War in Europe
Sept 1st, 1939 Germany invades
Poland, “Blitzkrieg” or lightening war is
used
Great Britain and France declare war
The USSR was neutral, Stalin and Hitler
had already agreed to divide up Poland
British and French troops waited along
the Maginot Line for an attack, the
“Phony War” ensued…Sitzkrieg
Hitler Invades Western Europe
April 1940, Hitler invades Demark and
Norway
May 1940, Hitler invades Netherlands,
Belgium, and Luxembourg
German tanks move through the Ardennes
Forrest bypassing the Maginot Line
400,000 British troops escape at Dunkirk
June 1940 France is attacked by the
Germans in the North and the Italians in the
South, Paris Falls
French General Charles de Gaulle fled to
England to govern in exile
The Battle of Britain
During the summer of 1940 the
Luftwaffe began to bomb Britain
In order to launch Operation Sea
Lion Hitler had to destroy the RAF
fighters and gain control of the air
With the help of radar the British
fought back and bombed Germany
The British were motivated by their
new Prime Minister Winston
Churchill
The Tripartite Pact
In Sept. 1940 The Three nations of
Germany, Italy and Japan signed a mutual
defense treaty known as the Tripartite Pact
The Axis Powers were united
The goal was to keep the US out of war, and
if we declared war on any member of the
pact the US would have a two- ocean war
Invasion of the USSR
Frustrated that England will not fall, In
June 1941, Hitler launches Operation
Babarrosa an all out attack on the
USSR
German troops push deep into the
interior of the USSR, Leningrad was
under siege, Stalingrad was rubble,
and German guns boomed only miles
outside Moscow
Stalin took the brunt of the German
offensive, millions of Soviets perished
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack was planed by Adm. Yamamoto
The Japanese Fleet left Japan in Nov. 1941,
the US lost the location of the fleet
somewhere in the Northern Pacific
The US broke the Japanese code instructing
Japan to deny any peace proposals
Attack on Pearl Harbor II
On Sunday December 7th, at 7:55 am
about 350 Japanese planes attacked
The US Base at Pearl Harbor on Oahu
Three battleships were sunk, one was
grounded and four were damaged
175 US airplanes were destroyed
2,335 American soldiers and sailors
were killed, 1,178 wounded
On the same day Japan attacked the
Philippines, Guam, Hong Kong, and
Singapore
The US and Britain Join Forces
Winston Churchill met with FDR to map out
war plans on Dec 22, 1941
Germany and Italy were perceived as the
greater threat so it was decided to
concentrate on Europe first then the Pacific
Allied Hope
The Situation was bleak in 1942 but the
Allies had:
Natural Resources
Skilled Workforce with significant
reserves
Ability to produce massive amounts
of weapons and ammunitions
Determination of millions of antifascists
The capacity of the USSR to endure
Ch 16 Sec 3- The Holocaust
Why did the Nazis persecute
the Jews?
What was the final solution?
What were the profound and
lasting effects of the
Holocaust and its survivors?
Jewish Persecution Begins
In 1933 Hitler orders all Jews be removed
from government jobs
In 1935 The Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews
of their citizenship, jobs and property. Jews
were forced to wear a yellow Star of David
In Nov. 1938 Kristallnacht or “Night of
Broken Glass Jewish homes, businesses,
and synagogues were smashed or burned
100 Jews were killed, 30,000 were taken
prisoner
The US accepted Jews of “Merit”, but not
the SS Saint Louis

Liberation of the Concentration
Camps
Both Red Army troops
liberating extermination camps
in Poland and US/British troops
liberating camps in Germany
were horrified at what they had
found
Starving Inmates, Unburied
bodies, and massive
Ch. 16 Sec 4 – America Moves
Toward War
What was the US response to the
outbreak of WWII?
How did FDR help the Allies
without declaring war ?
What events brought the US into
conflict with Germany?
What was the US response to the
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
Isolationism to Involvement
Americans still want to stay out of the war
the Neutrality Acts of 1935,36, and 37 were
still in force
– 1935- No weapons to nations at war
– 1936- Banned loans to such nations
– 1937 -Trade Non-military goods “Cash and
Carry”
1940 the conservative America First
Committee was formed to keep the US out,
famous members included Henry Ford and
Lindbergh
After Hitler attacked Poland, FDR looks to
Debating the American Role
After the attack on Poland Congress
repealed the arms embargo and gave
the British and the French the arms
they needed transported on US ships
(The Neutrality Acts were dead)
FDR Destroyer Deal with Winton
Churchill
50 old US Ships in exchange for bases
in the Western hemisphere
The Election of 1940 FDR Vs Wendell
Willkie
FDR – “Your boys are not going to be
sent into any foreign wars.” FDR wins!
“The Great Arsenal Of Democracy”
In 1940 Congress passed the Selective
Training and Service Act, the nation’s first
peacetime draft. (16 million between the
ages of 21-35 were eligible, 1 million were
drafted)
In March 1941 FDR and Congress passed
The Lend-Lease Act to support Britain
In June 1941 after Hitler invaded the USSR
Lend-lease aid was extended to Stalin as
well
In Sept. 1941 the US Navy used the convoy
system against German “Wolf-pack” attacks
(U-boats) Undeclared Naval War existed
The Atlantic Charter
By August 1941 FDR was planning for war
FDR and Churchill meet on the USS Augusta
and issue the Atlantic Charter a joint
declaration of war aims: ( Signed by 26
nations)
Collective Security
Disarmament
Self-Determination
Economic Cooperation
Freedom of the Seas
Basis of a “Declaration of the United
Japanese Aggression
As French, Dutch, and British colonies
lay unprotected Japanese leaders unite
East Asia under Japanese control
In July 1941 Japanese forces take
Indochina
US cuts trade with Japan including oil
 In Nov. 1941 Japan sent peace envoys
to Washington, while Tojo ordered the
Japanese Navy to prepare for an attack
In Nov. FDR sent a war warning to
bases in the Pacific
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack was planed by Adm. Yamamoto
The Japanese Fleet left Japan in Nov. 1941,
the US lost the location of the fleet
somewhere in the Northern Pacific
The US broke the Japanese code instructing
Japan to deny any peace proposals
Attack on Pearl Harbor II
On Sunday December 7th, at 7:55 am
about 350 Japanese planes attacked
The US Base at Pearl Harbor on Oahu
Three battleships were sunk, one was
grounded and four were damaged
175 US airplanes were destroyed
2,335 American soldiers and sailors
were killed, 1,178 wounded
On the same day Japan attacked the
Philippines, Guam, Hong Kong, and
Singapore