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Transcript
Consciousness-raising Tasks
Rod Ellis
University of Auckland
Explicit knowledge
Explicit knowledge is knowledge ABOUT
language rather than knowledge of OF
language. It is factual knowledge.
Some language learners rely primarily on
explicit knowledge because they have
acquired very little implicit knowledge.
Implicit knowledge
Implicit knowledge is the knowledge of language that
enables you to communicate easily without having to
think about how to say something.
Example of implicit knowledge:
 Riding a bicycle
 Tying a shoe lace
 Walking home
How important is implicit and explicit
knowledge?
When we communicate we draw primarily on
implicit knowledge but we can also make use of
explicit knowledge to help formulate sentences
and to monitor output. Many L2 learners will
compensate for their limited implicit knowledge of
English by drawing on their explicit knowledge,
especially in writing.
Two types of language exercises
1. Practice exercises
These are activities that require learners to use
their knowledge of a second language in
controlled or free production.
2. Consciousness-raising tasks
These are activities to make learners think about
language and to understand its rules.
A Practice Exercise
Complete the sentences with ‘very’ or ‘too’.
1.
My neighbours are ___ quiet. I never hear them.
2.
I can’t walk to work. My office is ___ far from my house.
3.
I take the bus to work. It’s ___ crowded but I usually get a seat.
4.
It’s ___ hot in summer but unfortunately my office has airconditioning.
5.
Time goes ____ quickly and I never finish my work.
6.
I want to move into this city but I can’t because the apartments
are ___ expensive.
A CR Task
What is the difference in the meaning of these pairs of
sentence?
Can you explain when to use ‘very’ and ‘too’?
1. My neighbours are very quiet so I never hear them.
My neighbours are too quiet so I never hear them.
2. Time goes very quickly so I never finish my work.
Time goes too quickly for me to finish my work.
3. My office is very far to walk to from my home.
My office is too far to walk to from my home.
4. The bus is very crowded but I get a seat.
The bus is too crowded for me to get a set.
Using ‘wish’
Are the sentences in bold referring to the future, the present or the past?
Write the sentences in the correct column of the table.
1. He wishes he earned more money.
2. She wishes she had married him.
3. They wish he would stop smoking.
4. We wish it hadn’t rained.
5. She wishes she could go to America.
6. He wishes he were a bit taller.
7. He wishes he had gone to university.
8. She wishes he would marry her.
9. The wish they had more free time.
Future
Present
Past
Complete these rules to explain how to use ‘wish’.
The verb to wish is followed by a verb in the _____
when we want to talk about situations in the present
that we are not happy about but cannot change
When we want to talk about situations in the past that
we are not happy about or actions that we regret, the
verb wish is followed by a verb in the ______.
When we want to talk about situations we are not
happy about and where we want someone else to
change them, we use wish followed by ____ +
_____.
Use the rules to help you correct the errors in these sentences.
1. She wishes she is more beautiful but she isn't.
2. He wishes he did not lie but he did.
3. I wish he goes away but he won’t.
Verbs with two objects
She gave a book to her father (= grammatical)
She gave her father a book (= grammatical)
The policeman explained the law to Mary (= grammatical)
The policeman explained Mary the law (= ungrammatical)
A. What is the difference between verbs like ‘give’
and ‘explain’?
Verbs with two objects (Cont.)
B. Indicate whether the following sentences are
grammatical or ungrammatical.
1. They saved Mark a seat.
2. Kim’s father read him a story.
3. She donated the hospital some money.
4. They suggested Mary a trip on the river.
5. They reported the police the accident.
6. They threw Mary a party.
7. The bank lent Mr. Thatcher some money.
8. He indicated Mary the right turning.
9. The festival generated the college a lot of money.
10. He cooked his girl friend a cake.
Verbs with two objects (Cont.)
C. Work out a rule for verbs like ‘give’ and
‘explain’.
1. List the verbs in B that are like ‘give’ (i.e.
permit both sentence patterns) and those
that are like ‘explain’ (i.e. allow only one
sentence pattern).
2. What is the difference between the verbs in
your two lists?
MORE ON VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS
Can you explain the difference between ‘explain’ and ‘purchase’
Some multi-syllable verbs only allow one pattern when there is a
direct and indirect object.
The teacher explained the grammar point to the class.
DO
IO
X The teacher explained the class the grammar point. X
IO
DO
However, there are some multi-syllable verbs that allow two
patterns:
Mr. Smith purchased a new car for his son.
DO
IO
Mr. Smith purchased his son a new car.

IO
DO
MORE ON VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS (CONT.)
Say whether the following sentences are grammatical or
ungrammatical.
The principle guaranteed his staff a salary rise.
My friend recounted me an amusing story.
The teacher reported the headmaster the result of the examination.
The reporter exposed his readers the lie.
The courier delivered Mary the parcel.
The doctor prescribed his patient a new medicine.
The committee awarded John the prize.
The principle allocated Mary a new role
The philosopher suggested his class the solution to the problem.
The prisoner demanded his cellmate medical attention.
MORE ON VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS (CONT
Write the verbs in the grammatical sentences in column A.
Write the verbs in the ungrammatical sentences in column B.
Verbs that take both patterns
Verbs that only take one pattern
MORE ON VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS (CONT.)
Can you explain the difference in the
two sets of verbs?
Prepositions of time
Underline the prepositions
I made an appointment to see Mr. Bean at 3 o'clock on Tuesday 11th
February to discuss my application for a job. Unfortunately, he was
involved in a car accident in the morning and rang to cancel the
appointment. I made another appointment to see him at 10 o'clock on
Friday 21st February. However, when I got to his office, his secretary
told me that his wife had died at 2 o'clock in the night and that he was
not coming into the office that day. She suggested I reschedule for
sometime in March. So I made a third appointment to see Mr. Bean at 1
o'clock on Monday 10th March. This time I actually got to see him.
However, he informed me that they had now filled all the vacancies and
suggested I contact him again in 1998. I assured him that he would not
be seeing me in either this or the next century.
Prepositions of time (cont.)
Write the time expressions in the table
AT
at 3 o'clock
IN
ON
Prepositions of time (cont.)
Make up a rule.
We use ‘at’ with ________________________________
We use ‘in’ with ________________________________
We use ‘on’ with ________________________________
EPISTEMIC MODALITY
Epistemic modality refers to the way speakers communicate
their doubts, certainties, and guesses—their "modes of
knowing".
Two main ways of expressing epistemic modality:
1.
Adverbials - certainly, probably, possibly
2.
Modal verbs – must, should, could, may, might.
HOW CERTAIN ARE YOU?
Someone left a bag on the train. Inside there was a purse with a lot of
money, a stethoscope, a syringe and a lot of medicine bottles.
Here are some sentences about the owner of the bag. They express
different degrees of probability. Put the sentences in order form the
most probable to the least likely.
1.
The owner of the bag might be a thief.
2.
The owner of the bag is a doctor.
3.
The owner of the bag should be a man.
4.
The owner of the bag could be a salesman working for a drug
company.
5.
The owner of the bag may be a drug addict.
6.
The owner must be worried about losing the bag.
A POSSIBLE ORDER OF THE SENTENCES
1.
The owner of the bag is a doctor.
2.
The owner must be worried about losing the bag.
3.
The owner of the bag should be a man.
4.
The owner of the bag could be a salesman working for a
drug company.
5.
The owner of the bag may be a drug addict.
6.
The owner of the bag might be a thief.
MATCH THE SENTENCES IN A WITH
THOSE IN B
A
B
The owner of the bag might be a The owner of the bag is very
possibly a salesman working for a
thief.
drug company.
The owner of the bag is a
The owner is the bag is probably
doctor.
a man.
The owner of the bag should be It is just possible that a thief stole
a man.
the bag.
The owner of the bag could be a The owner is definitely a doctor.
salesman working for a drug
company.
The owner of the bag may be a It is just possible the owner of the
drug addict.
bag is a thief.
The owner of the bag must be
The owner is certainly worried
worried about losing the bag.
about losing the bag
Polite Requests
You are going to do a CR task to learn how to make
polite requests.
1. First do the task by yourself.
2. Discuss your answers in pairs.
Making a request
1. Teacher, I need your advice.
2. I do need to get your feedback on this.
3. I'd be very grateful for any feedback you can
provide.
4. Please notify me, hopefully before the weekend
is over, on what I should do.
5. Would you be able to give me some feedback on
my paper when you have time?
6. Here is my essay. Please help me to check it.
AN EMAIL MESSAGE
This email was sent to Professor Ellis by a doctoral student in
Iran. The student had never met Professor Ellis nor had he
communicated with him before.
What changes would you make to the student’s email
message to make it more polite.
Dear professor, I am Reza, a PhD candidate in Teaching English as a
Foreign Language (TEFL) at University of Tabriz. I am conducting a
study about the apology strategies of Persian speakers for my
Sociolinguistics course, and my professor insists that I use certain
sources for my article. The most important source that my professor
wants is the book chapter entitled"House, Juliane (1989) “’Oh excuse
me please… ’ Apologizing in a foreign language.“ In Englisch als
Zweitsprache, B. Kettemann et al. (eds), 303-327. Tübingen: Narr.". I
have searched every place for this source. I even traveled to other cities
and visited the libraries of their universities but I could not find it. If I
can not find this source I may not be able to pass my course. Dear
professor, your kind help is the only hope that I have. Would it be
possible for you to help me and send me this book chapter? Dear
professor, I really really appreciate your kind help. I am looking forward
to hearing from you.
Best Regards
Reza
Some Advantages of CR Tasks
1.
They involve the learners in actively discovering
and building their own explicit L2 grammar
2.
Research has shown that it can work as well as
direct CR (cf. Fotos)
3.
They lend themselves to group work so learners
have a chance to interact with each other
('grammar' as content).
4.
They serve a ‘learner training’ function, helping
learners to develop the skills needed to discover
grammar rules autonomously.
Designing CR Tasks
1. Data options
2. Operations
Data Options
1. authentic vs. contrived
2. oral vs. written
3. discrete sentences vs. continuous text
4. well-formed vs. deviant data
5. gap vs. non-gap
Operations
1. identification
2. judgment
3. completion
4. modification
5. sorting
6. matching
7. rule provision
Teaching CR Tasks
1. Choice of participatory structure
 teacher-class
 small group work
 individual work
2. Choice of language
 Target language (English)
 L1 (Spanish)
3. Feedback
 teacher provided
 grammar reference book
Some Limitations of CR Tasks
1.
CR does not guarantee acquisition of targeted feature
as implicit L2 knowledge
2.
Some rules may be too complex to be learned
explicitly.
3.
CR is probably more suitable for older learners (but
possibility of constructing CR games for children)
4.
While CR is likely to appeal to learners with an analytic/
field independent style it may not appeal to learners
with a more experiential/ field dependent learning
style.
Note: CR is NOT a method (i.e. CR tasks cannot constitute a
complete course).