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A
aqueducts system of channels, pipes, and bridges that
carried water into Roman towns.
Abbasids group that took control of the Muslim empire
from the Umayyads in 750.
Aquinas, Thomas Italian philosopher who said classical
philosophy and Christian theology could exist in
harmony.
Abraham shepherd who became the father of the Hebrew
people.
absolute monarchs kings or queens who had unlimited
power and controlled all aspects of society.
absolute ruler leader who has total power.
Acropolis highest part of Athens, location of important
buildings.
Aeneas hero of the Trojan War who settled in Italy after
Troy was destroyed.
Afonso I king of Kongo whose rule began in 1506 and
who was influenced by the Portuguese.
afterlife a life believed to follow death.
agriculture cultivation of soil to produce crops.
ahimsa nonviolence.
AIDS disease that attacks a person’s ability to fight off infections.
Akbar Mughal emperor who showed wisdom in
governing his empire.
Aksum empire along the Red Sea that controlled much of
northern Ethiopia from the first to the eighth century.
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
al-Andalus Arabic name for Spain while under Muslim
control.
Alexander the Great King of Macedonia who
conquered parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Alexandria city in Egypt founded by Alexander in 332 b.c.
Allah Arabic word for God.
Allied forces World War I alliance of Great Britain,
France, Russia, and others; World War II alliance of
United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, Canada,
Australia, and other countries that fought the Axis
powers.
Almoravids North African Islamic dynasty in the 1000s
and 1100s that tried to forcibly convert neighboring
peoples.
alphabet system of symbols representing sounds.
Anasazi early culture of the Southwest who were the first
pueblo dwellers.
anatomy structure of living things.
arid climate type marked by hot summers and limited
rainfall.
aristocracy a government ruled by the upper classes.
armistice end to fighting.
ENGLISH
Abd al-Malik caliph in the 600s who imposed a common
language in Muslim lands.
arms race competition between the United States and the
Soviet Union to develop more destructive weapons.
artisans people trained in a particular skill or craft.
Aryans group of Indo-Europeans who are believed to
have migrated to the Indian subcontinent.
Askia Muhammad ruler of the Songhai empire from
1493 to 1528 who expanded the empire and organized
its government.
Asoka greatest Maurya king who began to rule in 272 b.c.
assembly line manufacturing using a conveyor belt to
move materials to workers who stay in one place to
work.
astrolabe instrument used to measure the angle of a star
above the horizon.
Athens city-state of ancient Greece, noted for its
democratic form of government.
atomic bomb enormously destructive bomb that the
United States used against Japan to end World War II.
Augustus Julius Caesar’s great-nephew and adopted son
who became the first Roman emperor.
Aurangzeb Shah Jahan’s son, who became the emperor
of the Mughal Empire in 1658.
Axis powers alliance formed by Germany, Italy, and
Japan in World War II.
B
Babur general who led the Mughal conquest of northern
India.
Babylonian Captivity 50-year period in which the
Israelites were exiled from Judah and held in Babylon.
Baghdad capital of the Abbasid Empire; capital of
present-day Iraq.
Bantu-speaking peoples West African peoples who
shared a language family and gradually migrated
eastward and southward.
Angkor Wat temple complex built on the Indochinese
Peninsula in the 1100s, the world’s largest religious
structure.
barbarian according to the ancient Romans, someone
who was primitive and uncivilized.
apartheid official policy of racial segregation practiced
in South Africa from 1948 to 1991.
bas-relief sculpture in which slightly raised figures stand
out against a flat background.
barracks military houses.
appeasement meeting demands of a hostile power in
order to avoid war.
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
English Glossary chivalry code of conduct of knights, focusing on bravery,
honor, and respect toward women and the weak.
Berlin Conference meeting in Berlin in 1884–1885 to
divide up Africa.
Churchill, Winston British Prime Minister during World
War II.
bishops local church leaders within the Roman Catholic
Church.
Cicero Roman consul, speaker, and opponent of Caesar.
Bismarck, Otto von Prussian prime minister who
unified Germany.
citizen person who owes loyalty to a country and receives
its protection.
blitzkrieg German “lightning war” tactics.
city-state political unit made up of a city and its
surrounding lands.
Boer War war in South Africa between British and Dutch
colonists known as Boers (1899–1902).
circumnavigate to sail completely around.
civil disobedience nonviolent refusal to obey laws.
Bolívar, Simón leader for independence in northern
South America.
civilization advanced form of culture that developed in
cities.
Bonaparte, Napoleon military leader who created a
vast French Empire after the French Revolution.
civil war armed conflict between groups in the same
country.
Brahmanism early religion of the Aryans, who migrated
to India.
clans groups of people who share an ancestor.
bubonic plague disease that struck western Eurasia
in the mid-1300s, in an outbreak known as the Black
Death.
Clovis founder of a Frankish kingdom in the former
Roman province of Gaul.
Buddhism religion that began in India and is based on
the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama.
bureaucracy system of departments and agencies that
carry out the work of a government.
Byzantine Empire eastern half of the Roman Empire
that survived for a thousand years after the fall of
Rome.
C
Caesar, Julius Roman general, politician, and dictator.
caliph head of a Muslim community.
clergy people with priestly authority in a religion.
code of law written rules for people to obey.
codex type of book used by early Mesoamerican
civilizations to record important historical events.
Cold War conflict between the United States and the
Soviet Union after World War II.
Colosseum Roman stadium where Romans watched
gladiator fights.
Columbian Exchange movement of plants and animals
between the Eastern and Western hemispheres after
Columbus’ voyages to the Americas.
Columbus, Christopher Italian explorer in the service
of Spain who reached America in 1492.
calligraphy art of fine handwriting.
comedy humorous dramatic work that makes fun of
politics, important people, or ideas.
Calvin, John French leader of the Protestant
Reformation.
common law system of law based on court decisions
and local customs.
capitalism economic system based on private ownership
of resources and the use of those resources to make a profit.
communism political system in which the government
controls and plans the economy with the goal of
common ownership of all property.
caravel ship designed for long voyages.
Confucianism belief system based on the teachings of
Confucius, a Chinese scholar.
caste social class that a person belongs to by birth.
catapult military machine used to hurl stones or spears at
enemy forces and city walls.
cataract high waterfall or rapids.
celadon Korean ceramic pottery with a thin blue or green
glaze.
Congress of Vienna series of meetings in Vienna,
Austria, in 1814–1815 to reestablish peace and order in
Europe after Napoleon’s defeat.
Constantine Roman emperor who made Christianity one
of the empire’s legal religions.
Central Powers World War I alliance of Germany,
Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
consuls people who led the executive branch in ancient
Rome.
Charlemagne king of the Franks who conquered much
of Europe and spread Christianity.
containment policy to stop the spread of communism.
Córdoba capital of Muslim Spain.
chasquis runners who carried messages up and down the
length of the Incan Empire.
corporations businesses owned by investors who buy
parts of them through shares of stock.
English Glossary
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
ENGLISH
Bastille Paris prison seized by a revolutionary mob on
July 14, 1789.
creed statement of beliefs.
Crimean War war on the Crimean Peninsula in the Black
Sea between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Great
Britain, and France (1853–1856).
drought long period of little or no rainfall when it is
difficult to grow crops.
Duomo domed cathedral in Florence.
cultural diffusion spread of cultural practices and
customs to other areas of the world.
dynastic cycle pattern of the rise and fall of dynasties in
China.
Cuneiform first known writing system, which used
wedge-shaped symbols.
dynasty family or group that rules for several
generations.
D
E
daimyo Japanese noble who had large landholdings and a
private army.
Dai Viet independent kingdom established by the
Vietnamese after they drove the Chinese from the
Indochinese Peninsula in the 900s.
Daoism Chinese belief system said to have begun with
Laozi, a philosopher in the 500s b.c., based on the idea
of natural order in the world.
Darwin, Charles English naturalist (scientist who studies
plants and animals) who developed theory of evolution.
David king of the Israelites who won control of Jerusalem
around 1000 b.c.
D-Day Allied invasion of France during World War II, on
June 6, 1944.
Declaration of Independence document that declared
American independence from Great Britain.
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
drama written work performed by actors.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
Citizen document written by leaders of the French
Revolution.
Delian League league of Greek city-states formed for
mutual protection.
delta triangle-shaped deposit of rich soil at a river’s mouth.
democracy government in which citizens make
political decisions, either directly or through elected
representatives.
dharma collective teachings of the Buddha, often
represented by a wheel.
Diaspora movement of the Jews to other parts of the world.
Diocletian Roman emperor who restored order to the
empire and divided it into eastern and western parts.
direct democracy form of government in which all
citizens participate.
disciples closest followers of Jesus.
ENGLISH
Crusades series of military expeditions from Christian
Europe to Palestine between the 1000s and 1200s.
domino theory belief that if a country fell to
communism, nearby countries would follow.
Eastern Orthodox Church branch of Christianity that
developed in the Eastern Roman Empire.
economic depression long slump in business, in which
many workers lose their jobs.
Edison, Thomas inventor who developed the light bulb,
phonograph, and motion picture camera.
Elizabethan Age period of English history named after
Queen Elizabeth I, who ruled from 1558 to 1603.
embalm to preserve a body after death.
embassy office of one country’s government in another
country.
emperor person who rules an empire.
empire group of territories and peoples brought together
under one supreme ruler.
enlightened despots absolute rulers who tried to use
power in a just and enlightened way.
Enlightenment philosophical movement in the 1600s
and 1700s that was characterized by the use of reason
and the scientific method.
epic long poem about a hero’s adventures.
Epistles letters that became part of the New Testament.
ethnic cleansing removing an ethnic or religious group
from an area by force or the mass killing of members of
such a group.
exile forced removal from one’s homeland, often to lands
far away.
Exodus migration of the Israelites from Egypt.
F
fable short story that usually involves animals and
teaches a moral.
factories buildings that house enormous machines in
which hundreds of laborers work.
divan imperial council that advised the sultan of the
Ottoman Empire.
fascism political philosophy that promotes blind loyalty
to the state and a strong central government controlled
by a powerful dictator.
domesticate to adapt or breed plants or animals for
human use.
federalism sharing of power between an organization and
its members.
fertile favorable for the growth of crops and other plants.
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
English Glossary feudalism political and social system of the Middle
Ages in Europe, in which lords gave land to vassals in
exchange for service and loyalty.
filial piety respect for one’s parents and ancestors, an
important teaching of Confucianism.
floodplain flat land bordering the banks of a river.
Forbidden City group of walled palaces built for the
Chinese emperor in the capital city of Beijing.
Four Modernizations Chinese policy to modernize
aspects of the economy.
G
Gandhi, Mohandas 20th-century Indian who helped
lead his country to independence by using nonviolent
resistance to colonial rule.
Garibaldi, Giuseppe Italian soldier who helped unify
Italy.
Gautama, Siddhartha founder of Buddhism also
known as the Buddha, or “enlightened one.”
Genghis Khan Mongol leader who united the Mongol
tribes and began a campaign of conquest.
Gentiles non-Jewish people.
geocentric theory belief that the earth is the center of
the universe.
Ghana kingdom that existed from the 700s to the 1000s
in the region between the Sahara and the forests of
southern West Africa.
gladiators trained Roman warriors.
global economy economy in which buying and selling
occurs across national borders.
griots storytellers in African civilizations.
guilds associations of people sharing a trade or craft,
intended to control the quality and quantity of their
production and to protect their interests.
Gutenberg, Johann German inventor of the printing
press.
H
habeas corpus right of people not to be imprisoned
unlawfully.
haiku Japanese form of poetry that has 17 syllables
arranged in lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables.
Han Dynasty Chinese dynasty begun in 202 b.c. by Liu
Bang, who reunified China.
Harappan civilization ancient civilization that
developed along the Indus River.
harmony agreement in feeling.
Hatshepsut woman pharaoh who strengthened Egypt
through trade.
heliocentric theory belief that the sun is the center of
the universe.
Hellenistic culture made up of parts of Greek, Persian,
Egyptian, and Indian styles and customs.
helots enslaved people of Sparta.
Hidalgo, Father Miguel priest who took the first step
toward Mexico’s independence.
hieroglyphs pictures that stand for words or sounds.
Hijrah move of Muhammad and his followers from
Mecca to Yathrib in a.d. 622.
Himalayas the highest mountains in the world, which
stretch along northern India, separating India from
China and the rest of Asia.
global warming increase in the average temperature of
the earth’s atmosphere.
Hindu-Arabic numerals numerals we use today that
originated in India and were brought to the West by
Arab trade.
golden age period during which a society attains
prosperity and cultural achievements.
Hinduism modern name for the major religion of India,
which developed from Brahmanism.
Gospels four written accounts of the life of Jesus.
Hindu Kush mountain range to the northwest of India.
government organization set up to make and enforce
rules for a society.
Hitler, Adolf German head of state from 1933 to 1945.
Great Depression serious and worldwide economic
decline of the 1930s.
Holocaust systematic murder of millions of Jews and
others by the Nazis during World War II.
Great Plains cultural region located in the vast grassland
in central North America extending from south-central
Canada southward to Texas.
humanism way of thought that focuses on human beings
and their potential for achievement.
Great Schism division in the Roman Catholic Church
from 1378 to 1417, which occurred when the Church’s
two centers of power elected different popes.
human rights people’s rights to life, liberty, equality,
health care, and other rights essential to human well
being.
Great Wall wall built by Shi Huangdi to link smaller
walls and keep invaders out of China.
Hundred Years’ War series of wars between England
and France that took place between 1337 and 1453.
Great Zimbabwe central settlement of the Shona empire
in Africa.
hunter-gatherers people who hunt animals and gather
plants for food.
English Glossary
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
ENGLISH
Fertile Crescent region stretching from the Persian Gulf
northwest up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and west
over to the Mediterranean Sea.
I
justice fair treatment of all the people, based on the law.
Iberian Peninsula southwestern tip of Europe; present
location of Spain and Portugal.
Justinian Code uniform code of law based on Roman law.
ideal perfected form.
K
imperial relating to an empire or emperor.
imperialism policy by which stronger nations extend
their economic, political, or military control over
weaker nations.
Indochinese Peninsula large area of land located to the
south of China.
indulgence relaxation of earthly penalty for sin.
Industrial Revolution economic changes of the late
1700s, when large-scale manufacturing replaced
farming as the main form of work.
inflation an increase in prices and a decrease in the value
of money.
Inquisition Roman Catholic court established to find and
punish those who had strayed from the Roman Catholic
faith.
iron curtain division between Communist Eastern
Europe and non-Communist Western Europe.
Iroquois Confederacy Native American group formed
about 1450 and made up of the Cayuga, Mohawk,
Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca tribes.
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
irrigation watering dry land by using ditches, pipes, or
streams.
Islam monotheistic religion based upon submission to
God’s will and the teachings of the Qur’an, the Muslim
holy book.
island hopping Allied strategy in the Pacific of invading
selected islands and using them as bases to advance
closer to Japan.
Kalidasa one of India’s greatest writers.
karma in Hinduism, the consequences of a person’s
actions in this life, which determine his or her fate in
the next life.
Kenyatta, Jomo leader of Kenya’s independence
movement and the country’s first president.
khanate one of the parts of the Mongol Empire.
Khayyam, Omar master of the poetic form called the
quatrain, popular in Persia.
Khmer Empire empire that began in the 500s and had
gained control of much of mainland Southeast Asia by
the 800s.
Khufu pharaoh who ordered the construction of the
largest pyramid ever built.
Kilwa ancient city-state on the eastern coast of Africa,
settled by people from Arabia and Persia.
king highest-ranking leader of a group of people.
King John king of England who signed the Magna Carta
in 1215.
Kongo a Bantu-speaking kingdom that arose in the 1300s in the Congo River region along Africa’s
western coast.
Koryo kingdom on the Korean Peninsula, established in
the 900s, from which present-day Korea takes its name.
Kublai Khan grandson of Genghis Kahn who took power
and gained control over all of China.
isthmus strip of land that connects two landmasses.
Kush Nubian kingdom that conquered all of upper and
lower Egypt in the 700s b.c.
J
L
Jahangir Akbar’s son, who allowed his wife to control the
Mughal Empire after he took the throne.
janissaries members of an elite fighting force in the
Ottoman Empire made up mainly of slaves.
Jefferson, Thomas colonial leader from Virginia who
wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Jesuits religious order also called the Society of Jesus,
founded by Ignatius of Loyola.
Jesus Jewish teacher whose life and teaching became the
basis of Christianity.
Joan of Arc French peasant girl who led the French to
victory over the English at Orléans in 1429.
Judaism monotheistic religion of the Jews, based on the
writings of the Hebrew Bible.
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
ENGLISH
Ignatius of Loyola Spaniard who founded the religious
order of Jesuits.
Justinian emperor who expanded the Byzantine Empire.
laissez-faire economics theory that business, if free of
government regulation, will act in ways that benefit the
nation.
League of Nations organization set up after World War I to settle international conflicts.
Legalism belief that a powerful, efficient government and
a strict legal system are the keys to social order.
legend popular story from earlier times that cannot be proved.
Leonardo da Vinci Italian Renaissance painter and scientist.
linen fabric woven from fibers of the flax plant.
longbow weapon that could shoot arrows with enough
power to penetrate a knight’s armor.
English Glossary ENGLISH
Luther, Martin German theologian, born in 1483, who
was a leader of the Reformation.
M
Magna Carta list of rights written by England’s nobility
and signed by King John in 1215.
Mali West African empire of the Malinke people between
the 1200s and 1500s.
Manchus people from northeast of China who conquered
the Ming and began the last dynasty (the Qing) in Chinese history.
Mandate of Heaven ancient Chinese belief that a good
ruler had the gods’ approval.
Mandela, Nelson leader of the movement of black
South Africans to gain equal rights.
manor noble’s house and the villages on his land where
the peasants lived.
Marathon plain near Athens.
maritime relating to the sea.
Masada Jewish fortress overlooking the Dead Sea in Israel.
matrilineal descent family identity that is based on the
mother’s family, rather than the father’s.
Maya Mesoamerican civilization that reached its height
between a.d. 250 and 900.
mercantilism economic policy based on the idea that a
nation’s power depends on its wealth.
mosaic picture made by placing small, colored pieces of
stone, tile, or glass on a surface.
Moses according to the Bible, the prophet who led the
Israelites from Egypt.
mosque Muslim house of worship.
mother culture culture that shapes and influences the
customs and ideas of later cultures.
Mount Olympus highest mountain in Greece; home of
the Greek gods, according to myth.
movable type small block of metal or wood with a
single raised character, used for printing texts.
Mughals Muslims from central Asia who conquered
northern India in the 1500s.
multinational corporation company that operates in
more than one country.
mummy body prepared for burial according to ancient
Egyptian practice.
Munich Conference conference held in Munich,
Germany, at which Great Britain and France agreed
that Germany could have the Sudetenland region of
Czechoslovakia.
Musa, Mansa leader of the Mali empire from 1312 to
about 1337.
Muslims followers of Islam.
Mussolini, Benito fascist leader of Italy.
myth story that people tell to explain beliefs about their
world.
mercenary soldier for hire.
N
Mesoamerica region that includes the central and
southern part of Mexico and much of Central America.
nationalism feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness
toward one’s country.
Mesopotamia land between the Tigris and Euphrates
rivers.
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military
alliance that originally included Canada, the United
States, and ten European nations.
Messiah Hebrew word that means an “anointed one”
charged with some task or leadership.
Michelangelo Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, and
architect.
Middle Ages period between the fall of the Roman
Empire and the Renaissance, lasting from about a.d.
500 to 1450.
migration process of relocating to a new region.
missionary person sent to do religious work in another
place.
Mongols fierce nomadic warriors who lived in the plains
northwest of China.
monotheism belief in one God.
monsoons seasonal wind system that produces a wet or
dry season in a region, sometimes with heavy rainfall.
natural rights rights to life, liberty, and property that
many believe people are born with.
Nazi Party party that developed a German form of
fascism.
Nehru, Jawaharlal India’s first leader after
independence.
nirvana in Buddhism, a state of wisdom that ends
reincarnation.
Nkrumah, Kwame leader of Ghana’s independence
movement.
nomads members of a group of people who have no set
home but move from place to place.
Nur Jahan Jahangir’s wife, who held the true power in
Mughal India while her husband was the emperor.
Montezuma II last Aztec emperor, who ruled from a.d.
1502 to 1520 and was overthrown by the Spanish.
English Glossary
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
lord powerful landowner in medieval Europe.
O
philosophes French thinkers who applied the scientific
method to social problems.
oligarchy a government ruled by a few powerful
individuals.
philosophy logical study of basic truths about
knowledge, values, and the world.
Olmec earliest major Mesoamerican civilization, which
flourished from 1200 to 400 b.c.
Phoenicians people of Southwest Asia who began to
trade around 1100 b.c.
Olympics games held in ancient Greece every four years.
pictographs pictures or drawings that represent a word
or an idea.
oracle bones animal bones or shells used by the Shang
kings to communicate with the gods.
pilgrimage journey to a sacred place or shrine.
Osman founder of the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor in
the early 1300s.
ostracize in ancient Greece, to send someone away from
the city-state for ten years.
P
Piye king of Kush around 750 b.c., who gained control of Egypt, becoming pharaoh and uniting Egypt
and Kush.
plague disease that spreads easily and usually causes death.
planned cities cities built according to a design.
plebeians commoners who were allowed to vote but not
to hold government office in ancient Rome.
Pachacuti ninth Inca ruler, who came to power in a.d.
1438 and expanded the Incan Empire.
plunder to loot, or to take things by force.
papyrus paperlike material made from the stems of the
papyrus reed.
Polo, Marco Italian traveler in China.
parables stories with morals, often told by Jesus.
pope bishop of Rome and the most important bishop in
the Catholic Church.
parliament group of representatives with some powers of
government.
polis Greek word for city-state.
polytheism belief in many gods and goddesses.
Parthenon temple for Athena on the Acropolis.
porcelain hard white ceramic material, often called china.
partition division of a country into two or more separate
parts.
potlatch ceremony where gifts and property are given
away to show the giver’s wealth and status.
patricians wealthy landowners who held high
government positions in ancient Rome.
primary source document or artifact created by a person
who witnessed a historical event.
patrons wealthy or powerful people who provide money,
support, and encouragement to an artist or a cause.
printing press device that mechanically printed pages
by pressing inked forms onto paper; invented in about
1455.
Paul apostle and early leader of the Christian church.
Pax Romana Latin phrase meaning “Roman Peace,”
referring to the peace and stability of the Roman
Empire.
Peace of Westphalia treaty that recognized the
religious division of western Europe.
Pearl Harbor U.S. naval base in Hawaii attacked by the
Japanese on December 7, 1941.
pediment triangular space between the top of a
colonnade and the roof.
Peloponnesian War conflict between Athens and Sparta
from 431 to 404 b.c.
Peloponnesus peninsula that forms the southern part of
Greece.
peninsula body of land nearly surrounded by water.
Pericles leader of Athens from 460 to 429 b.c.
ENGLISH
obelisk pillar-shaped stone monument.
oratory art of public speaking.
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
pharaoh ruler of ancient Egypt.
prophets spiritual leaders who were thought to have a
special ability to interpret God’s word.
Protestant member of a Christian group that broke away
from the Catholic Church.
provinces governmental divisions like states.
psychology study of the human mind and behavior.
pueblos villages made up of multistoried adobe or stone
dwellings.
pyramid ancient Egyptian structure, built over or around
a tomb.
Q
Qin state of ancient China.
Qur’an Muslim holy book.
perspective technique used by artists to give the
appearance of depth and distance.
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
English Glossary R
savannas flat grasslands in the tropics or subtropics with
few, scattered trees.
rabbis Jewish leaders and teachers.
scholar-official educated person who worked in China’s
government.
Raj Great Britain’s rule of India from the 1850s until 1947.
Ramses II pharaoh who ruled Egypt for 66 years and
greatly expanded the Egyptian empire by conquering
surrounding territories.
rationalism use of reason to understand the world.
Reconquista series of campaigns, ending in 1492, by
which Christian armies drove Muslim rulers out of Spain.
Reformation movement in the 1500s to change practices
in the Catholic Church.
Reign of Terror period in which anyone considered an
enemy of the French Revolution was executed.
reincarnation the rebirth of a soul in another body.
religion worship of God, gods, or spirits.
religious order group of people who live according to a
set of religious rules.
Remus twin of Romulus, the legendary hero who founded
Rome.
Renaissance rebirth of creativity, literature, and learning
in Europe from about 1300 to 1600.
republic government in which citizens elect
representatives to rule in their name.
reunification merging of East Germany and West
Germany into one country in 1990.
reunify to bring something that has been separated back
together.
Roman Catholic Church Christian church based in
Rome.
romanticism artistic movement in the early 1800s that
emphasized emotion, individual freedom, and nature.
Romulus legendary hero who founded Rome.
Royal Road road used for government purposes in
ancient times.
S
Sahara large desert in Northern Africa.
Saladin military leader who united Muslims to fight the
Christians in Palestine in the 1100s.
salons gatherings in Europe of thinkers and artists to
discuss the important issues of the day.
samurai professional soldiers of Japan.
San Martín, José de leader for independence in
southern South America.
satraps governors of provinces in the Persian Empire.
English Glossary
scientific method way to understand the world that
involves observation and experimentation.
Scientific Revolution major change in European
thinking in the mid-1500s that led to the questioning of
old theories.
scribes people who specialized in writing and record keeping.
secondary source work produced about a historical
event by someone who was not actually there.
Senate powerful body of 300 members that advised
Roman leaders.
Sepoy Mutiny rebellion in 1857 by Indian soldiers, or
sepoys, against the British.
serfs people who lived and worked on the manor of a lord
or vassal.
Shah Jahan Jahangir’s son, who became the emperor of
the Mughal Empire in 1628.
Shakespeare, William English playwright and poet of
the late 1500s and early 1600s.
Shi’a branch of Islam that resisted the rule of the
Umayyads.
Shi Huangdi Chinese ruler who came to power in 221
b.c. and unified and expanded China by ending internal
battles and conquering rival states.
Shinto Japan’s original religion; involves worshiping gods
believed to be found in nature.
shogun leader of a military government of Japan
beginning in 1192.
Shona Bantu-speaking culture that was thriving by 1000
in what is now Botswana, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe.
Silk Roads overland trade routes along which silk and other Chinese goods passed to Mesopotamia and Europe.
silt fine, fertile soil carried by rivers and deposited on
nearby lands.
slash-and-burn agriculture type of agriculture in
which land is prepared for planting by cutting down and
burning natural vegetation.
Smith, Adam economist who wrote that economic
freedom would lead to economic success in his most
important work, The Wealth of Nations.
social class group of people with similar customs,
backgrounds, training, and income.
Solomon David’s son, who became the third king of
Israel about 962 b.c.
Songhai West African people whose leaders built a giant
empire in the 1400s and 1500s.
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
ENGLISH
racism belief that some people are inferior because of
their race.
Sparta city-state of ancient Greece, noted for its
militarism.
Timbuktu city of Mali, developed by Sundiata in the
1200s as a center of trade and culture.
specialization skill in one type of work.
toleration practice of allowing people to keep their
traditions and beliefs.
sponsor someone who gives money for an undertaking,
such as a voyage.
stalemate situation in which neither side can win.
standing army fighting force maintained even in times
of peace.
step pyramid type of pyramid with sides that rise in
giant steps.
Stock Market Crash of 1929 plunge in stock
market prices that marked the beginning of the Great
Depression.
stocks shares or pieces of a corporation that people own,
giving them rights of ownership.
Stoicism originally, a Greek philosophy that stressed the
importance of virtue, duty, and endurance in life.
subcontinent large landmass that is part of a continent
but is considered a separate region.
succession order in which members of a royal family
inherit a throne.
Suez Canal waterway linking the Red Sea with the
Mediterranean Sea.
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
Suleyman I sultan of the Ottoman Empire in the 1500s
who organized an effective legal code.
tragedy serious drama that presents the downfall of an
important character.
trans-Eurasian involving the continents of Europe and
Asia.
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 treaty between Spain and
Portugal that gave Portugal control over land that is now
Brazil.
Treaty of Versailles 1919 treaty that ended World War I.
trench warfare warfare in which soldiers dug deep
trenches across the battlefield.
triangular trade exchange of goods and slaves across
the Atlantic Ocean between Africa, the Americas, and
Europe.
tribute payment made in return for protection.
Trinity Christian belief in the union of three divine
persons—Father, Son (Jesus), and Holy Spirit— in one God.
tropical having a warm and rainy climate.
truce agreement to stop fighting.
Sundiata ruler of the Malinke people in the 1200s who
greatly expanded Mali’s empire.
tyrant in ancient Greece, a ruler who took power
illegally.
Sunnah teachings and practices of Muhammad used as
guides for living.
U
Sunnis members of the branch of Islam that accepted the
selected caliphs as successors of Muhammad and did
not resist the Umayyads.
surplus amount produced in excess of what is needed.
sustainable growth economic development that meets
current needs in ways that conserve resources and
preserve the environment.
Swahili African language that blends Bantu and Arabic
elements.
synagogues places for Jewish prayer and worship.
T
Taj Mahal beautiful tomb in India built by Shah Jahan to
honor his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
technology people’s application of knowledge, tools, and
inventions to meet their needs.
Ten Commandments basis of the law of the Israelites;
according to the Torah, given by God to Moses.
terrorism use of violence for political ends.
theory of evolution theory that species change over
generations through natural selection.
World History
Multi-Language Glossary
ENGLISH
stabilize to keep from changing.
Toussaint L’Ouverture leader of Haiti’s movement for
independence from France.
Umayyads dynasty that ruled the Muslim empire from
661 to 750.
United Nations international peacekeeping body
founded by 50 nations after World War II.
universal gravitation force of attraction that acts on all
objects throughout the universe.
V
vassal person in feudal society who received land and
protection from lords in return for loyalty.
vaults arches that form a ceiling or a roof.
vegetation zone region that, because of its soil and
climate, has distinctive types of plants.
vernacular a person’s native language.
W
Warsaw Pact alliance of the Soviet Union and its allies
in Central and Eastern Europe.
Wilson, Woodrow President of the United States during
World War I.
English Glossary wood-block printing printing system developed by the
ancient Chinese, in which wood blocks were carved
with enough characters to print entire pages.
ENGLISH
woodcut image produced from a wood carving.
Y
Yucatán Peninsula area of dense jungle in southeastern
Mexico, extending into the Gulf of Mexico and the
Caribbean Sea.
Z
Zealots group of Jews who led a rebellion against Roman
authority.
Zen form of Buddhism that focuses on self-discipline,
simplicity, and meditation.
Zeus ruler of the Greek gods.
Zheng He Chinese admiral whose voyages greatly
expanded China’s foreign trade and reputation.
ziggurat temple built atop a series of increasingly
smaller platforms.
Copyright © by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company.
Zionists Jews who wanted a Jewish national homeland in
Palestine.
10 English Glossary
World History
Multi-Language Glossary