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COMPARING THE AZTEC AND INCA Similarities Political… • Expansionist States • represented imperial stage of development for respective region • Leaders were semi-divine or representatives of gods • Local leadership allowed, as long as sovereignty recognized • Governed trade networks to some degree Technology & innovation… • Methods of agriculture (Chinampas - Terrace farming) • Road networks • No Wheel Social Organization & Values … • built on traditions of previous peoples in the region • power to nobility over time Often served as administrative bureaucrats • Calpulli similar to ayllu • Patriarchy; women had inheritance rights • Polytheistic; human sacrifice (smaller in Inca); sun god key, temples served by priests PRE COLUMBIAN SOCIETIES OF AMERICA Mesoamerica South America Productivity/Organization : • Potato, quinoa, maize • Lacked distinct merchant class; few specialized crafts • Land Ownership… • Practice of split inheritance caused need for new lands • Didn’t recognize concept of private property • Significant degree of centralization; large class of bureaucrats, hierarchy—State owned property • Usually demanded labor not tribute (service, not tax) Religion: • Religion had strong moral quality and Incan rulers were mummified Language: • Quipu –no system of writing • Common language –Quechua; greater degree of uniformity Productivity Focus: • Trade and markets far more developed—metallurgy and textiles— potecha (highly regulated) • State controlled mixed economy • Cacao beans and gold dust used for currency as well as barter system • Maize was main crop Government Organization: • Separate city-states; Tenochtitlan was the heart of the empire; built on lakes (Venice) • City-state rulers chosen by the nobility; Great Speaker (ruler of Tenochtitlan) was first among equals (increasingly became living god) • Emperor chosen by council of nobles and priest to serve as civil and religious leader—really election between siblings • Left local governance in hands of the conquered peoples; much smaller bureaucracy; paid tribute based on how they were conquered • Military conquest related to religious beliefs of bloodletting (human sacrifice)—means of political terror Social Organization: • Became a more stratified society; as nobility became more powerful WHAT IS SIGNIFICANT ABOUT THE COMPARISON? Analytical & Comprehensive Aztec 1. 2. 3. Inca AZTECS & INCAS While both empires achieved imperial control by way of militaristic means, the methods employed to maintain order within their respective regions differed. The Aztecs utilized a tribute system, while the Incas encouraged assimilation through religious means.