Bell Work 9/11 What are some “rocks” that are valuable? Why do you think these “rocks” are so valuable? Explain. Update your ISN… p. 14 Chapter 9 cover sheet p. 15 Learning targets p. 16-17 Vocabulary P. 18-19 Ch 9-1 Notes Rocks and Minerals oGlue your notes guide on page 18 and 19 oHow would you have described a mineral and a rock last week? “Learning Target”…….. “I Can…..” Identify the differences between a mineral and a rock. What is a mineral? A mineral …… o Is an Inorganic solid formed in nature (Inorganic -- not living or ever been living. It is not formed by plants or animals) o Has a characteristic-”FIXED”- chemical composition o Has distinctive physical properties o Has a Crystalline structure (-- an orderly arrangement of atoms) Crystals •Minerals with some solid, geometric shape to them are called crystals. They are produced by a repeating pattern of atoms that is present throughout the mineral. • • • • Crystals can be made from different elements: (ex: diamonds –are made from carbon) (salt—is made from the elements sodium and and chlorine. Crystals cont’d • A crystal’s shape is determined by the arrangement of the atoms within the crystal. • A crystal’s color is determined by the elements that are mixed in. • Crystals are not just what we think of as jewelry. You actually eat many different types of crystals( such as salt, sugar, baking soda) Minerals are more common than you think…. Currently, about 4,000 minerals have been identified, and 50 to 100 new minerals are discovered each year!! We use them in our everyday households such as metal pots and pans, salt shakers, dishware, and even glassware!!! How do minerals form? They form in several ways: 1. From melted rock inside the Earth called magma o As it cools the atoms combine in orderly patterns to form minerals 2. From magma that reaches Earth’s surface, called lava o As it cools the atoms combine in orderly patterns to form minerals 3. Evaporation of dissolved minerals 4. From precipitation *water can hold dissolved minerals. 8 Properties of Minerals include: • Color Luster • Streak Hardness • Cleavage & Fracture • Density • Specific Gravity • Special Properties Color: Not Mineral Specific It’s the LEAST reliable way to classify a mineral!! Luster: (shininess) It’s describes how minerals reflect light Metallic Non-metallic Streak: Is the mineral in it’s powdered form of a mineral NOTE: The color of a mineral’s streak is not always the same as the color of the mineral sample. Cleavage & Fracture Describes how different types of minerals break in different ways. Cleavage is the tendency of some minerals to break along smooth, flat surfaces. Mica Biotite Mica Calcite • Fracture is the tendency of some minerals to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces Hardness: A mineral’s resistance to being scratched. This is tested using the Mohs’ Scale of hardness (pg. 272) The Mohs’ scale was founded by an Austrian geologist: Fredrich Mohs. Ooohhh!! Diamonds! • Diamonds are the hardest known mineral (10 on Mohs’ Hardness Scale) • They are formed very deep in the Earth and at great pressure • It takes 250 tons of Earth to obtain a 1.00 Ct Diamond! • It takes 1405 degrees of heat to burn a Diamond! • Only Diamonds can Scratch or Polish another Diamond! • Diamonds come in wonderful fancy colors like, Pink, Blue, Green, Champagne, Black, Chocolate, Yellow, Red, Gray, and even Purples! (such as the famous HOPE diamond, which is blue!!) Did You Know? • The largest diamond in the world is the Cullinan diamond weighing 3,106 carats! It was cut into 105 separate diamonds. Trivia Question: If Diamonds are the hardest mineral, what is the second hardest mineral? Corundum!!!! Which is the mineral name for ruby and sapphire. Density and Specific Gravity • Density is the measure of how much matter is in a given amount of space. • Density is a ratio of an object’s mass to its volume. (D= m/v) • Different minerals have different densities. • A mineral’s Specific Gravity compares the weight of a mineral with the weight of an equal volume of water. Special Properties • Some properties are particular to only a few types of minerals. - The properties shown on the next slide can help you quickly identify some minerals. Special Properties Gems • are rare minerals that can be cut and polished, giving them a beautiful appearance • Ideal for jewelry • Are rare and are therefore valuable • Must be made under tremendous amounts of heat and pressure, deep in the Earth’s mantle • It takes a certain kind of volcanic eruption to bring diamonds close to the surface Ores • A mineral is called an ore if it contains enough of a useful substance that it can be sold for a profit • Metals that people use, such as: • Iron used to make steel comes from hematite • Lead for batteries comes from galena • Magnesium in vitamins comes from dolamite • In order to obtain these ores, they must be mined “Learning Target”…….. “I Can…..” Use a table of physical properties to classify minerals. Bellwork 9-2-15 A mineral MUST….. S ----N ----I -----F -----“Fixed” _______ ______ C ------ What is a Mineral? What is a mineral? A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid, with a fixed chemical composition , that has a definite crystalline structure. What is a mineral? Solid Cannot be a liquid or a gas Naturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made I norganic Is not living nor has ever been living Fixed chemical composition Has a definite chemical formula, most are formed from two or more elements, but some minerals consist of one element ex. Au Crystalline structure A definite structure in which atoms are arranged in a geometric pattern Questions to ask yourself when determining if an item is a mineral or not: Is it non-living material? Is it a solid? Is it formed in nature? Does it have a crystalline structure? Gold Fossil Topaz Bones Granite Quartz Pearls Talc Icebergs Diamond Coal Rock Salt And the answers are… Minerals a) b) c) d) e) f) Gold Topaz Quartz Talc Iceberg* Diamonds Non-Minerals a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Wood - once living Fossils – once living Bone - living material Granite - intrusive igneous rock Pearls – made by oysters Coal - Sedimentary rock Rock Salt – Sedimentary rock *FYI: According to the MA (International Mineral Association) ice is listed as a mineral! Quick Check….. Can you name all eight physical properties of minerals? Color Luster Streak Hardness Cleavage & Fracture Density Specific Gravity Special Properties Update your ISN… p. 36: “Practice: Identifying Minerals” Objective: I can use a chart to identify minerals. Bellwork Sept 16, 2014 Paste the half-slip review sheet FLAT onto page p. 36 (“Treasures in Earth” will glue over later). *Complete sheet *Get out “Treasures in Earth” sheet and begin working on it Update your ISN… p. 37: “Quiz: Minerals” *Add today’s date *Add to T.O.C. Bell Work 9/17 B Update your ISN… 1. p. 38: “Mineral Lab Wrap Up” Objective: I can use a table of physical properties to identify minerals. 2. p. 39: “Mineral I.D. Lab” *Add to T.O.C. *Add today’s date “Learning Target”…….. “I Can…..” Use a table of physical properties to classify minerals. Assignment……… Use your table # to complete the “Minerals Identification” lab. When you finish, glue to p. 39 Hint: The Minerals can only be one of the following: Fluorite Calcite Galena Halite Quartz Mica Gypsum Feldspar Talc Bellwork 9/18/14 Look at the different mineral samples provided. Then, list GOOD, reliable properties that could be used to distinguish between the two minerals. What property would be the least reliable way to identify them and why? Apply what you have learned about minerals!! Sample 1 54 Sample 2 54 “Learning Target”…….. ISN p.40: Objective: I can distinguish between the three different types of rocks. ROCKS and the Rock Cycle!!! So What Exactly is a Rock?? A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals and “organic” matter. -Rocks go through a “cycle”, meaning they are always changing into different forms. They are continually being “recycled” through a process called the “Rock Cycle”. -Can you think of another “cycle” that you have learned about in Science? All change! So how do rocks change?? Rocks may last a long time but they do change. Even tough igneous rocks may be broken down to smaller particles. We call this process weathering. Small particles may be moved to new areas. We call this transportation. The two processes together (weathering and transportation) are called erosion. Classifying Rocks • Each class of rock can be divided further and classified based on the different ways rocks form. • Igneous rock can be divided again based on whether the magma from which it forms cools on the Earth’s surface or below ground. • Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also divided into smaller groups. • Scientists study rocks in detail using two important criteria: composition and texture. What determines a rock’s composition? • The minerals a rock contains determines the Composition, or chemical makeup, of a rock. • (ex: a rock made mostly of quartz will have a composition similar to • • quartz.But a rock made of 50% quartz and 50% feldspar will look different than that of quartz) • quartz Quartz & feldspar Rocks have Quality!!! •Texture is the size, shape, and position of the rock’s grains. It’s what determines the “quality” of a rock. •Texture provides clues as to “how” and “where” the rock actually formed and reveals the process that formed it. Siltstone Fine grained Sandstone Medium grained Conglomerate Coarse-grained 3 Major Types of Rocks Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Look at these pictures of rocks. •How are they different? •How are they the same? Igneous Rocks “fire rocks” The word “ignis” means “fire” Igneous rocks are made either underground or above ground. Igneous Rocks – ‘fire rocks’ Underground: melted rock, called magma, cools slowly and solidifies to become igneous rocks. Igneous Rocks – ‘fire rocks’ Above ground: volcanoes erupt, bringing the magma to the earth's surface, it is called lava. The lava cools and becomes igneous rocks. The way IGNEOUS ROCK forms often depends on: A) How fast the rock cooled B) what the rock is made of The longer it takes for magma to cool the more time mineral crystals have to grow. The more time the crystals have to grow, the larger they will be !! The rock will also be more coarse. In other words: If magma (lava) cools fast the result is ….. Smaller, finer crystals Or no crystals at all Fine-grained rock!! If magma (lava) cools slow the result is ….. Larger crystals Coarse-grained rock!! Something to think about??? Do you think rocks that cooled and solidified from LAVA on Earth’s surface would look different from those that cooled and solidified from MAGMA inside the Earth? WHY? Igneous Rocks What are They? Igneous rock can form in different places. If they cool inside the Earth, they are called large __________ igneous rocks and have _______ intrusive crystals. If they cool on the surface, they are called extrusive small __________ igneous rocks and have _______ crystals. This usually forms around volcanoes. Igneous Rocks – ‘fire rocks’ Granite Pumice Basalt Obsidian Bell Work 9/22 1 G 2 B Update your agenda… Tue 9/23: Mini Quiz #1 Thur 9/25: Mini Quiz #2 Fri 9/26: Mini Quiz #3 Mon 9/29: Mini Quiz #4 Tue 9/30: Foldable Due Time for a Refresher!! Study the picture of the rock to the right. What can you infer about the composition and the texture of the rock? What does this tell us about the formation of this rock? Intrusive Igneous Rock --Coarse Grained --Can see Crystals Sedimentary Rocks “sandwich rocks” For millions of years, little pieces of our earth (called particles) have been broken down by wind and water. Sedimentary Rock “sandwich rocks” These little bits of our earth are washed to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans where they settle and are compressed together over time. Sedimentary Rock “sandwich rocks” Many layers of small pieces of earth collect on top of each other in layers. These layers are pressed down more and more until the bottom layers slowly turn into hard rock. 4 Steps in which Sedimentary Rocks are Formed Wind and water break down the earth Bits of earth settle in lakes and rivers Layers are formed and build up Pressure and time turn the layers to rock Sedimentary Rock – ‘sandwich rocks’ Limestone Coal Sandstone Sedimentary rock takes thousands to millions of years to form. Erosion of solid rock over time has produced sediments and shaped our earth!!! Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sandstone Limestone Shale Conglomerate The most common form of sedimentary rock on Earth is “Shale”. It covers about threefourth’s of the land’s surface. 1 F Bell Work 9/23 2 G Metamorphic Rock – ‘changing rocks’ Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" or changed into another kind of rock. The word metamorphic means “changed form”. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. Metamorphic Rock – ‘changing rock’ Millions of tons of heat and pressure have made these rocks change. Metamorphic Rock – ‘changing rock’ Most rocks will melt at a temperature of __________. Two types of texture in Metamorphic Rock: Foliated Arranged in layers or bands Ex: Slate Nonfoliated Are made of only a few minerals: Do not have layers or bands Under pressure and Feeling the Heat!!! (Horseshoe shaped) Metamorphic rock is like plastic!! When rocks metamorphose under high temperature and pressure, they become plastic and can be easily deformed. The largest range of exposed metamorphic rock in the world is the Canadian Shield. It is the source of more than 70% of the minerals mined in Canada. Types of Metamorphic Rocks Schist Gneiss Metamorphic Rock “changing rock” Marble Slate Quartzite 1 Bell Work 9/24 F 2 D Update your ISN… p. 42 Types of Rocks: Graphic Organizer *Add today’s objective p.43 Mini Quizzes: Rocks Tee hee! I’m so pun-y! *Now-clear your desk except for a dry erase marker if you have one… if not, I’ll share. Okay, let’s review!!! Take the challenge on the following slides about the 3 types of rocks and see how much you actually know!!! Quick Review: Rock types © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college Sedimentary Sedimentary rocks Often look like flat plates stuck together. Grains often visible, these can crumble apart. Fossils can be present. Rocks come from flat beds. Often porous (let water pass through easily). © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college Igneous rocks Igneous rocks Tough rocks with no plates visible. The crystals (if you can see them) often interlock and run in different directions. No fossils present – EVER! Rocks do not form in flat beds. Non-porous (will not let water through) © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college Metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks Often ‘sugary’ with particles that can be arranged in sheets or randomly. Remains of fossils sometimes present – but not often. Beds often have wavy bands. Often less porous than sedimentary rocks – but metamorphic rocks show a wide range of porosity. © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college Ready?! © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college Your first specimen... ? Clues: Crystals visible Very tough rock Water cannot pass through (not porous) Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic? Igneous! © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college How about this one... ? Clues: Fossils present Very porous Layers visible Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic? Sedimentary! © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college And this one... ? Clues: Grains very small Clear layers Not porous No fossils Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic? Metamorphic! © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college Last chance... ? Clues: Grains very small No layers Not porous No fossils Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic? Metamorphic! © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college True or false? True or false? 1. Igneous rocks form from cooling magma produced by volcanoes. TRUE 2. Sedimentary rocks never contain fossils. FALSE 3. Igneous rocks are usually very porous. FALSE 4. Sedimentary rocks often have layers. TRUE 5. Granite is a metamorphic rock. FALSE © OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college 1 F Bell Work 9/25… there is one more on the next slide Bell Work 9/25 2 J Update your ISN… p. 43 “Mini Quizzes: Rocks & Rock Cycle” p. 44… leave blank for now p. 45 9.3 Notes Guide Bell Work 9/26 1. Explain how the 3 types of rocks are different from each other. List at least 4 ways they differ. Rocks and the Rock Cycle… Remember rocks go through a “cycle”, meaning they are always changing. New rocks continually form from old rocks and old rocks get recycled. We call this process process the “Rock Cycle”. This process is similar to other cycles we know of such as the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. The Value of Rock • Rock has been an important natural resource for as long as humans have existed. • Ancient and modern civilizations have used granite, limestone, marble sandstone, slate and other rocks as construction materials. • Rock is also an important ingredient in concrete and plaster, both of which are commonly used in construction. Processes That Shape the Earth • Certain geological processes make and destroy rock. • These processes shape the features of our planet. • These processes also influence the type of rock that is found in certain areas. • Processes That Shape the Earth include: •Weathering •Erosion •Deposition •Lithification •. Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition •The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is called weathering. • Weathering is important because it breaks down rock into fragments from which sedimentary rock is made. • Wind, water, ice, and gravity then transports soil and sediment from one location to another through a process called erosion. • As the process continues sediments are later moved by erosion and eventually dropped and comes to rest in a process called deposition. Processes That Shape the Earth, continued As rock particles and organic matter are moved to a place of deposition and are covered by additional particles, eventually the weight from above will start a process called lithification. Lithification involves two steps: A) compaction --squeezes out the fluids and space that exist between the particles. B) cementation--- results when the fluids that are squeezed out are replaced with minerals that were in the fluids. **Once cementation occurs, the new sedimentary rock has been formed From Sedimentary Rock to Metamorphic • Temperature and pressure are important: •If the heat and pressure are high enough, the rock can change into metamorphic rock. • If the rock gets hot enough to melt, this creates the magma that eventually cools to form igneous rock. How the Cycle continues: • Rock that is buried beneath the earth’s crust is eventually pushed up (uplifted) to the surface thanks to movements within the Earth . This process is called “uplifting”. •As Erosion continues to chip away at the Earth’s surface , the rock that has been uplifted will eventually be exposed to the Earth’s surface. When uplifted rock reaches the Earth’s surface, weathering, erosion, and deposition begin to help the cycle begin all over again. What happens to older rock????? •As new rock is pushed up towards the surface, older rock is pushed down!!. The Rock Cycle in Action: Let’s review: Illustration of the Rock Cycle Rock formation does not have to go through a direct pattern. •Understand that sedimentary rock can become igneous rock just as metamorphic rock can become sedimentary rock!! •Remember: •The rock cycle is not an overnight process. It may take millions to tens of millions of years for each process in the rock cycle to occur!!!. Bell Work 9/29 1 B 2 C Good News!!! Only one mini quiz today! Mini Quiz #4 on Rock Processes Not So Great News… Mini Quiz #5 on Rock Cycle tomorrow… You’ll do great though!! Update your ISN… p. 44 Types of Rock Foldable (will not glue in until after I have graded it) p. 45 9.3 Notes Guide p. 46 Ch. 9 Study Guide p.47 Ch. 9 Test p. 48 Ch. 10 Pre-test p. 49 Ch. 10 Title Page & Learning Targets Bell Work 9/30 1 J Explain how Bell “melting & cooling” Work 10/1 more accurately describes the formation of igneous rocks than “heat & pressure.” Okay let’s review again!!! Take the challenge on the following slides about the Rock Cycle and see how much you actually know!!! The rock cycle The rock cycle Rock cycle quiz 1. Metamorphic rocks are made by… a) heat and pressure acting on other rocks b) particles dropping out of suspension in streams and rivers c) a small factory outside Manchester. 2. Which of these would you NOT find in sedimentary rocks… a) fossils b) layered structure c) interlocking crystals of minerals. Rock cycle quiz 3. The rock cycle is… a) a way to explain how types of rocks are converted to other forms b) an explanation of how heating and cooling can break down rocks c) a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber. Rock cycle quiz 4. Slow cooling of magma produces rocks with… a) large crystals b) small crystals c) no crystals. BrainPop! “Rock Cycle” Click here! Create a test question. Bell • It can be one that Work you want answered 10/2 before the test ~OR~ • It can be a challenging one that I should ask Question #1 A. GRANITE Mount Rushmore is one of the world's greatest mountain carvings. The faces of four great American presidents are carved in the side of the Black Hills of South Dakota. Mount Rushmore is what type of rock? A. granite B.sandstone C. limestone D. basalt Question #2 What rock was an important landmark for the pioneers traveling to Oregon, California, and Utah? Many of the travelers carved their names on this rock or painted their name on it in axle grease. What is the name of this rock? A. Rock of Gibraltar B. Plymouth Rock C. Independence Rock D. Stonehenge C. Independence Rock!!! Question #3 Basalt Mount St. Helens has layers of this type of rock as well as andesite through which several domes of dacite lava have erupted. What is the name of this rock? A. Granite B. Limestone C. Quartz D. Basalt Question #4 layers of this type of rock can be found at the Grand Canyon. What is the name of this rock? A. Sandstone B. Limestone C. Shale D. All of these All of These!!! Question #5 This famous rock is the largest stone found of this type. What is the name of this mineral? A. Ruby B. Sapphire C. Diamond D. Emerald The Hope Diamond!!! Question #6 B. Marble The Taj Mahal in India was built in 1654 and was constructed entirely of a metamorphic rock. What is the name of this rock? A. Gneiss B. Marble C. Slate D. Schist Question #7 The world's largest mass of exposed granite is located in Georgia. This mass is sometimes called "the eighth wonder of the world". What is the name of this famous rock formation? A. Stonehenge B. Stone Mountain C. Half Dome D. Siccar Point Stone Mountain Question #8 Rock of Gibraltar This famous rock formation is a huge limestone mass located on the southern coast of Spain, near the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. What is the name of this famous rock formation? A. Stonehenge B. Half Dome C. Rock of Gibraltar D. Siccar Point Question #9 Pike’s Peak This famous rock formation is a region of huge red and white sandstone rock masses that rise in strange shapes. This rock formation is located near Colorado Springs, Colorado. What is the name of this famous rock formation? A. Stonehenge B. Half Dome C. Pike's Peak D. Garden of the Gods Question# 10 The Giant's Causeway is an unusual formation of rock columns along the north coast of Northern Ireland. This natural wonder gets its name from an old legend. What type of igneous rock is found in this formation? A. Basalt B. Granite C. Obsidian D. Gabbro Basalt!!!