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Created by: Ann Purdy 3rd Grade • • • • • • • • • • • • • GPS Standards What is a rock and mineral? Identifying minerals chart and bar graph Minerals in your home Types of rock chart Identifying and classifying rocks Sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks The rock cycle Making a sedimentary sandwich What is a volcano? Rocks and minerals song Becoming a geologist Rocks and minerals picture hunt GPS Standards • The students will be able to: – Explain the difference between a rock and a mineral – Recognize the physical attributes of rocks and minerals using observation – Determine how water and wind can change rocks and soil over time – Investigate physical attributes of rocks What is a Mineral? What is a Rock? People use the word mineral to mean different things. True minerals are pure, solid substances made up of crystals. some minerals, like gold and carbon, are made of one element. Others, like salt and quartz, are made of a combination of elements. only natural substances are true minerals. So if you find some salt in a salt mine, it is a mineral, but if you make salt in a science laboratory, it is not - even though they are exactly the same! Rocks form the hard outer crust of our planet, The Earth. Rocks are made up of minerals, and minerals themselves are made up of elements. Unlike animals and plants, rocks are not alive. But that does not mean they always stay the same - in fact, they are changing all the time. Rocks can dissolve, melt, fall apart and even change into other rocks! • A mineral is composed of the same substance throughout. If you were to cut a mineral sample, it would look the same throughout. There are about 3000 different minerals in the world. Minerals are made of chemicals - either a single chemical or a combination of chemicals. Copper Diamond Talc Silver Types of Minerals Did you know your mom’s jewelry was made of different minerals? Gold Mineral Challenge! Calcite Topaz Quartz Ask to see how many minerals your mom has in her jewelry box. How many can you count? Together, we will identify each of the following minerals using the properties we have learned about in classifying minerals. Mineral Name Properties Uses of Mineral Rose Quartz Broken down into sand. Very hard mineral. Takes a lot of time to break down. Different colors. Used for making sandpaper and tools. Calcite Changed by heat and pressure. Opposite sides are parallel. Not very hard. Used for fertilizer, cement, chalk, and stone. Graphite Similar to a diamond, but much softer. The black streak is from plant remains. Used for lead pencils and painting. Perfect cleavage. Has a soapy or greasy feel. Very soft mineral. Used by artists for sculpting. Found in crayons, paint, paper, and soap. Red or black mineral, always with a red streak. Earthy luster. Not hard or soft. Used as a source of iron. Talc Hematite Look what Gemstones are in my jewelry box at home! Let’s do some Math! 1. How many garnets and diamonds are in all? Gemstones in the Jewlery Box Turquoise, 3 2. How many more diamonds are there than rubies? Garnet, 2 Amethyst, 2 Garnet Amethyst Diamond Sapphire, 5 Emerlad Diamond, 6 Ruby Sapphire Ruby, 4 Turquoise Emerlad, 2 3. Which three stones have the same number? 4. How many sapphires, rubies, and emeralds are in all? Did you know your birthday month has a special mineral to represent your day of birth? Lots of people wear jewelry that is the color of their birthday. This chart shows our birthdays and minerals. Classroom Birthdays Ja Fe n/G b a M /Am rn e ar /B eth t lo ys Ap ods t r/D to n M iam e Ju ay/ o ne Em n d /A e le ra l xa d n Ju dri A u ly t e g/ /Ru Se Sar b y p do O t/Sa nyx ct /T p p ou hir rm e No a lin De v e c/ /To Tu p rq az uo ise 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Birthday and Gemstone Chart Month Birthstone January Garnet February Amethyst March Bloodstone April Diamond May Emerald June Alexandrite July Ruby August Sardonyx September Sapphire October Tournaline November Topaz December Turquoise Did you know there are hundreds of minerals in your house? Click on the link below to see what minerals are in your house. http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mms/wealth/home.htm 3 Kinds of Rocks Igneous Rocks Made from fire and heat Comes from liquid rock from a volcano Sedimentary Rocks Rain and wind cause Mountains to crumble Broken rocks form Layers in lakes and streams Metamorphic Rocks Changed from Igneous or Metamorphic rocks Caused by heat And pressure Feature Color Definition The color of a mineral helps you identify what it is. Fracture Use a hammer to break the mineral into uneven and rough pieces. Hardness There is a special scratch test used to how hard mineral is. Specific Gravity Compare the weight of a mineral with the weight of water. Streak The color of a mineral’s powder. Rub the mineral across a tile to see this. Luster How a mineral reflects light. Words like dull, metallic, glassy, and silky are common. Cleavage Cleavage is the way that a mineral breaks along well defined planes of weakness. (We will not use this one) Transparency Refers to how the light passes through the mineral. What is it? Geologist figure out the type of rock or mineral by using the properties to determine what kind of rock or mineral it is. The properties are on this chart. We will use some of these properties when we begin identifying rocks and minerals in the classroom. Let’s talk about them. How Sedimentary Rocks Are Formed For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock. 3. 1. What does erode mean? 2. How are layers formed? Where are the layers formed? How Igneous Rocks are Formed Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground. Underground, they are formed when the melted rock, called magma, deep within the earth becomes trapped in small pockets. As these pockets of magma cool slowly underground, the magma becomes igneous rocks. Igneous rocks are also formed when volcanoes erupt, causing the magma to rise above the earth's surface. When magma appears above the earth, it is called lava. Igneous rocks are formed as the lava cools above ground. 1. 2. 3. Where are igneous rocks formed? What is the melted rock called? When are igneous rocks formed? How Metamorphic Rocks Are Formed Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change? The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which fosters heat build up, and this causes them to change. If you examine metamorphic rock samples closely, you'll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are. 1. Metamorphic rocks were once what kind of rocks? 2. 3. How do the rocks change? What shape are most of the rocks? Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Layers of Sedimentary Rock The earth’s layers are like a sandwich. Let’s explore! 1. Start with the bottom layer..It’s the oldest. 2. Start with some bread 3. Add some peppers 4. Some more bread 5. Add some chicken 6. More bread 7. Lettuce 8. Bread 9. Bacon 10. Bread When we get to the top layer, we have reach the youngest layer of rock. Most volcanoes are cone shaped. Volcanoes are made of many layers of cooled and hardened magma or lava. Even when the lava is hardened, and you're able to walk safely on it, burning hot lava is flowing inside the volcano. Lava that flows out of the volcano and onto the ground, hardens and becomes volcanic rocks. Obsidian, or black glass, is a volcanic rock that is shiny and sharp, but dried up too fast for crystals to grow. Why Volcanoes Erupt Volcanoes erupt because of the great pressure on the magma inside the earth's crust. The pressure comes from the heat and the earth's crust. when the pressure becomes too great, the magma flows upward looking for an opening to escape the pressure. when an opening is found, the magma flows out. This is a volcanic eruption. Metamorphic, Sedimentary, metamorphic sedimentary "Changing Rocks" Rocks formed that were layers, (adaptRocks to the tune of "Arein You Sleeping") Limestone Another kind andbefore. shale. Igneous rocks, igneous rocks Changed Broken by pieces heat or of matter pressure Form when magma Are Limestone squeezed and becomes pressed marble. together. Cools andchanging hardens. rocks. Changing rocks, When magma cools quickly Basalt and Pumice are made. Changing rocks, changing rocks • Now it’s your turn to become a geologist. You will complete the following activities: – Find out how many jewels are in your mom’s jewelry box at home. Click below to see my example from earlier. We will make a chart together at school. – Go to http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/kids/kids.htmlClick on Virtual Field Trips and take a tour. – Go to http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/movies/Fogo/fogo.htmland click on any of the videos. Watch the volcanoes erupt. Be patient, it takes a few seconds for the videos to load. How many different rocks and minerals can you find in these pictures? Let’s name them together!