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The Six Kingdoms of Life Review Sheet
1. List the Six Kingdoms of Life.
2. Match each term to its definition.
a. Can move on their own
b. Can produce their own energy, usually by photosynthesis
c. Cannot move on their own
d. Cells have membrane-bound organelles, especially a nucleus
e. Cells have no membrane-bound organelles
f. Made of more than one cell
g. Made of only one cell
h. Must get their energy from outside their bodies, usually by eating it
3. Fill in the chart with the appropriate information.
Prokaryotic or
Heterotrophic or
Mostly motile, mostly
sessile or both?
Unicellular or
4. Cross out the things that are not common to all living things.
a. Photosynthesis
e. Ribosomes
Cell membrane
b. Cellular respiration
Cell wall
c. Need for energy
g. Mitochondria
d. DNA
h. Chloroplast
5. Our modern classification system uses seven levels to classify and organize organisms. What are the seven
6. Which of these is written correctly and why?
a. homo sapiens
c. homo Sapiens
b. Homo Sapiens
d. Homo sapiens
 Why did you choose that answer?
7. Which of these organisms is least closely related to a dog, Canis familiaris?
______a. A coyote, Canis lantrans
______c. A wolf, Canis lupus
A fox, Vulpes fulva
8. Mark each statement that is true about our modern classification system.
The system can apply to organisms that are alive today and organisms that are now extinct.
The system can incorporate new scientific discoveries.
The system organizes organisms by groups according to how closely they are related.
The system was first developed by Linneus.
9. The earliest classification system only had two groups. What were they?
10. What invention led to the discovery of bacteria and protists?
11. In this phylogenic tree, is Z more closely related to X or to Y?
12. In the phylogenic tree, which organism appeared the earliest in history?
13. In the phylogenic tree, which organism appeared the most recently in
14. In the phylogenic tree, which organism is now extinct?
15. Use this dichotomous key to identify these organisms.
1a. Wings covered by an exoskeleton…go to 2.
1b. Wings not covered by an exoskeleton…go to 3.
2a. Body has a round shape…ladybug
2b. Body has an elongated shape…grasshopper
3a. Wings point out from the body…dragonfly
3b. Wings point behind the body…housefly
16. Use this identification tree to identify this organism.
17. List the scientific name for each of these bacteria shapes. Then sketch the shape.
a. Rod-shaped:
b. Spiral-shaped:
c. Spherical:
18. A bacterium is unicellular. Unicellular organisms get all their nutrients and water through their cell
membrane. Why does this keep any unicellular organisms from growing too large? (HINT: p55)
19. Are viruses alive?
20. A virus is made up of two basic things: _______ or _______ AND ____________.
a. DNA and RNA are made from the monomers called ______________.
b. Protein is made from the monomers called _____________ _________.
21. Viruses are very small. Can they be seen with a light microscope?
22. Which of these statements is true about a virus?
 Viruses can reproduce on their own.
 Viruses can only reproduce inside the cells of their host.
23. Read the following paragraph and answer the questions.
Robert Koch, a German doctor, discovered he could isolate bacteria from a cow
that had anthrax. When he injected a mouse with the bacteria, the mouse
developed anthrax. This discovery led to the Germ Theory of Disease. The Germ
Theory says that bacteria, virus or fungi cause many diseases. In the 1940’s,
penicillin was isolated and used to treat bacterial infections. It was the first
a. In 1847, some physicians decreased the number of infections simply by washing their hands before
treating their patients. Does this support or reject the Germ Theory?
b. In 1928, Alexander Fleming first discovered that a mold called Penicillium could prevent the growth of
bacteria. In 1939, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey isolated penicillin from the mold and began using it
as the first antibiotic. All three scientists received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1945. Does this story
show that scientists should always work together and continue each other’s work or does it support
the idea that scientists should work alone?
c. Which one of these people can be treated with antibiotics?
Patient with the common cold caused by a rhinovirus
Patient with the flu, caused by the Orthomyxoviridae virus
Patient with AIDS, caused by HIV
Patient with Strep Throat, caused by the streptococcus bacteria
d. A patient is suffering from a viral infection of the digestive system. Which of these things should a
doctor check first?
The air in the patient’s home
The water in the patient’s home
The patient’s skin for any scratches or cuts
The patient’s dog for fleas or ticks
e. The Dutch Elm Tree is almost extinct in America because of a fungal infection. However some Dutch
Elms survived and seem to be immune to the fungus. The bacterium that causes tuberculosis,
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was almost entirely wiped out by the antibiotic streptomycin.
However, in recent years, M. tuberculosis is much more resistant to the drug.
Does this paragraph support or reject Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection?
Streptomycin was used for many years to treat many diseases. Could this overuse of
streptomycin have led to the evolution of resistant bacteria? Why or why not?
24. Put a check next to each characteristic of a fungus.
 Multicellular
 Heterotrophic
 Prokaryotic
 Cell walls
 Nucleus
25. Plants carry out photosynthesis. What organelle does photosynthesis take place in?
26. What essential gas does photosynthesis produce?
27. What part of tree does most photosynthesis occur in?
 In deciduous trees, what happens to those parts in the winter, when there isn’t enough daylight to make
photosynthesis occur?
 What waxy coating protects and waterproofs a leaf?
28. Gymnosperms have wind-blown pollen and cones. Angiosperms have flowers and fruit to attract animals.
All of these are so that the plants can ________________.
29. The stamen is the male part of a flower and produces pollen. The pistil is the female part of the flower and
produces the egg. In which part does fertilization take place?
30. There are 9 major phylums of animals. How many are invertebrates?
31. Match the animal to its description.
a. “jointed leg” animals—crustaceans, insects, arachnids
b. Feathers, lay hard-shelled eggs; front limbs modified into wings—robins, jays
c. Fur or hair, bear live young, produce milk, perspire—dogs, humans, wombats
d. Moist skin; lay soft eggs in water; live in moist environments—frogs, newts
e. No specialized shells, aquatic, sessile—sponges
f. Radial symmetry—sea stars, sand dollars
g. Scaly, dry skin; lay leathery-shelled eggs—snakes, lizards
h. Segmented worms—earthworms
32. According to this table, what organism’s embryos do not
develop legs?
33. Match the adaptation to the environment its best suited for.
a. Digging in the ground
Large ears
b. Finding objects in the dark
Large eyes
c. Hearing improvements; cooling body
Long Claws
d. Moving through tree branches
Streamlined body
e. Nocturnal movement, such as hunting at night
f. Swimming
32. What are the major groups of vertebrates?
33. What phylum do all vertebrates belong to?
34. This map shows the normal range of aquatic mammals. Which two
mammals are most likely to be seen off the coast of Virginia?
35. Feathers are a modification of _________.