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Nutrition
Chapter 47
1
Nutrients
– Carbohydrates
– Proteins
– Lipids/fats
– Vitamins
– Minerals
– Water
2
Carbohydrates
• Sugar (simple)
• Starches (complex)
• Fiber
• Function
• Food sources
3
Proteins
• Essential amino acids
• Nonessential amino acids
• Incomplete proteins
• Function
• Food sources
4
Lipids (fats)
• Saturated fats
• Unsaturated fats
• Triglycerides
• Cholesterol
• Function
5
Vitamins
• Fat soluble
– A,D,E, K
• Water soluble
– C and B complex vitamin
• See vitamin/mineral handout
• Supplements
6
Minerals
• Inorganic elements found in nature
• See vitamin/mineral handout
• Supplements
Vitamin/mineral Handout
7
Energy Balance
• Caloric value
• Metabolism
• Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
• Resting energy expenditure (REE)
8
Body Mass and Body Weight
• Ideal Body Weight (IBW)
– Box 47-1 pg 1131
• Body Mass Index (BMI)
– Box 47-2 pg. 1131
• Percent body fat
Other Factors that Influence Nutrition
• Development
• Gender
• Ethnicity and culture
– Culturally responsive care pg. 1132
• Beliefs about food
• Personal preferences
• Religious practices
10
Other Factors that Influence Nutrition
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Lifestyle
Economics
Medications & therapy
Health
Alcohol consumption
Advertising
Psychological factors
11
Developmental Nutritional Needs
•
•
•
•
Neonates to 1 year
Demand feeding
Regurgitation (spitting up)
Introduction of solid foods
– No honey
• Bottle mouth syndrome
12
Developmental Nutritional Needs
• Toddlers
• Preschoolers
13
Developmental Nutritional Needs
• School Age Children
– Balanced diet of about 2400 Kcal
– Breakfast
– Teach child about healthful eating
– Poor eating habits  obesity
14
Developmental Nutritional Needs
• Adolescent’s needs
• Anoxeria nervosa
• Bulimia
15
Developmental Nutritional Needs
• Young Adult
• Middle aged adult
16
Developmental Nutritional Needs
• Older Adult
17
Standards for a Healthy Diet
• Dietary Guidelines USDA
– Shift to plant-based foods
– Reduce foods with added sugars & fats
– Exercise regularly
– Consume foods daily with vitamin D, calcium,
potassium, and fiber
Standards for a Healthy Diet
– Keep fat to 20% - 35% of total calories
• < 7% saturated fatty acids/day
• < 300 mg cholesterol/day
– Consume less than 1,500 mg sodium/day
– Moderate alcohol, if drink
20
Recommended Daily Intake based on
back USDA guidelines(pg. 1140)
My Pyramid
My Plate
21
22
Vegetarian Diets (pg. 1142)
•
•
•
•
•
Lacto-Ovo
Lacto
Ovo
Pesco
Vegan
23
Altered Nutrition
• Malnutrition
• Overnutrition
– Overweight, obese
• Undernutrition
Nutritional Assessment (pg. 1143)
•
•
•
•
History
Measurements
Physical exam
Lab values
25
Nursing Diagnosis
• Impaired nutrition: less than body requirements
• Impaired nutrition: greater than body
requirements
• Readiness of enhanced nutrition
• Ineffective coping
• Deficient fluid volume
• Excess fluid volume
• Deficient knowledge
• Impaired swallowing
• Risk for aspiration
26
Goals
• Regain specified weight AEB weight gain of ½
to 1 pound per week
• Maintain or restore optimal nutritional status
AEB consumption of at least 50% of a pureed
diet at each meal.
• Will decrease weight AEB weight reduction of
1-2 pounds per week
• Will verbalize methods to manage stress, such
as relaxation exercises by discharge.
27
Special Diets (pg. 1151)
As discussed in clinical learning lab
•
•
•
•
•
Regular
NPO
Clear liquids
Full liquids
Soft diet
– Pureed diet
•
•
•
•
Diet as tolerated
Calorie restricted
Fat restricted
Sodium restricted
• Dysphagia
28
QUESTIONS????
29