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Transcript
Hebrew Kingdoms and Captivity
Main Ideas:
Government – The Israelites built a small nation.
Government – Conflict divided the Israelites and made them vulnerable to outside
invaders.
Belief Systems – The exiled Israelites returned to their homeland with beliefs that
carried them through difficult times.
Government – Jewish resistance to Roman control resulted in Jews being driven out
of their homeland.
Belief Systems – Living outside their homeland, many Jews remained loyal to their
beliefs.
The Kingdom of Israel
Essential Question: Who were some of the early kings of Israel?
Saul and David
• _____________________separated Israelites from other regional groups
• Traded with other groups, but did not adopt cultures or beliefs
• Philistines invaded and conquered Israelite territory around 1029 B.C.E.
• Israelites agreed to ___________________________________
to fight the Philistines
• Israelites had feared a king having too much power
A New Leader
• First king,___________, successfully fought the Philistines around 1020
B.C.E.
• Bible says that after Saul’s death, they chose his son-in-law,
_____________, as king
• David’s army drove out the Philistines
• Won back __________________ - Became very important capital city of the Israelites
Solomon
• Solomon was chosen to succeed his father, David, in a new line of kings (_______________)
• Became king around 962 B.C.E.
• Ruled wisely over a strong nation
• Built up trade with the Phoenicians
• King of Tyre was a friend
• Built important Temple in Jerusalem
• Became known as ____________________________________
• Meant to be permanent home of the ____________________________________
• Required high taxes to
pay for build
• Also required men to give
a third of their time to
help build
Solomon’s Temple - Jerusalem
• Built in c. _________________________
• Destroyed in 587 B.C.E.
• Rebuilt in 516 B.C.E.
• Destroyed again in _________________
Review Question: Why did the Israelites
decide to choose a king?
The Kingdom Divides
Essential Question:
What was the outcome of the conflict among the Israelites?
Israel and Judah
• Solomon died in 922 B.C.E.
• Succeeded by son who faced rebellion
• Northern tribes demanded less taxes, and an end to forced labor
• Kingdom split into ___________________________________________________________
• Judah included the city of Jerusalem
• Words Judaism and Jews came from the name Judah
• Two kingdoms _______________________________________
Assyrians and Babylonians Strike
• By 738 B.C.E., Assyrians were forcing both kingdoms to pay tribute
• ________________ conquered and ended the Kingdom of Israel in
722 B.C.E.
• Assyrian Empire fell by 609 B.C.E.
• Large parts of empire conquered by the Babylonians around
612 B.C.E.
• Babylonia’s King Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem in 586
B.C.E.
• ____________________________________________
• Took thousands of enslaved Jews to _________________
Review Question: What conflicts caused Israel to split into two
kingdoms?
Jewish Exiles Return to Judah
Essential Question: What hope sustained the Jews in exile?
Beliefs During the Babylonian Captivity
• Exiles from Judah were in Babylon about 50 years – __________________________________
• Israelite exiles became known as Jews
• _________________________________________________
• observed religious laws, holidays, worship
• Israelites hoped to return to Judah and rebuild Temple in Jerusalem
• kept hoping for their own king, an heir to David’s throne
• Jews sought spiritual leaders’ advice in troubled times
• believed some leaders, ____________________, could interpret God’s word
• prophets warned people and rulers about straying from God’s laws
The Temple is Rebuilt
• Persians conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C.E.
• practiced ____________________________________
• Persian king _________________________ freed the Jewish exiles and allowed them to return to
Judah
• Jews rebuilt Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem by 515 B.C.E.
Review Question: How did the exiles maintain their identity in Babylon?
Roman Control
Essential Question: What was the result of Jewish resistance to Roman rule?
Rome Conquered Judea
• Roman conquered Judah (Judea) in 63 B.C.E.
• Roman rulers _______________________________________ over Judea
• Jewish kings, and religious leaders were appointed by the Romans
Resistance to Roman Rule
• The Zealots, a Jewish group, led a
__________________ against Rome in 66 C.E.
• Roman general Vespasian was sent to stop
uprising
• In 70 C.E., Titus stopped rebellion and
________________________________________
• some Jews fought on at Masada fortress,
but it was taken
The Great Diaspora
• Loss of Temple and Jerusalem caused many
______________________________________
• movement of Jews into the rest of the
world - the __________________; means
scattered
• Romans sent many Jews to Rome as slaves
• Some Jews remained in Jerusalem
Teachers and the Law
• Though scattered, many Jews kept their beliefs in righteousness and justice
• ____________________ - religious teachers and leaders - kept Jewish identity as a people
• built _________________________, places of worship and prayer, wherever Jews settled
• read Torah and its interpretations to the Jews
• Jews kept their faith, followed laws, observed customs, and studied Torah
Review Question: What was the lasting effect of Jewish resistance to Roman rule?
Lesson Summary
•
•
•
•
•
Saul, David, and Solomon were the first kings of Israel
After the death of Solomon, the kingdom of Israel split into two smaller kingdoms - Israel and
Judah
The Babylonian conquest
destroyed the Temple and forced
the people of Judah into exile in
Babylon
The Romans harshly put down a
Jewish revolt
The Jews held onto their faith
Why It Matters Now...
• The laws, rituals, and writings
from these periods are an
important part of how Jews
practice their religion today.