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Hebrew Kingdoms and Captivity
Main Ideas:
Government – The Israelites built a small nation.
Government – Conflict divided the Israelites and made them vulnerable to outside
Belief Systems – The exiled Israelites returned to their homeland with beliefs that
carried them through difficult times.
Government – Jewish resistance to Roman control resulted in Jews being driven out
of their homeland.
Belief Systems – Living outside their homeland, many Jews remained loyal to their
The Kingdom of Israel
Essential Question: Who were some of the early kings of Israel?
Saul and David
• _____________________separated Israelites from other regional groups
• Traded with other groups, but did not adopt cultures or beliefs
• Philistines invaded and conquered Israelite territory around 1029 B.C.E.
• Israelites agreed to ___________________________________
to fight the Philistines
• Israelites had feared a king having too much power
A New Leader
• First king,___________, successfully fought the Philistines around 1020
• Bible says that after Saul’s death, they chose his son-in-law,
_____________, as king
• David’s army drove out the Philistines
• Won back __________________ - Became very important capital city of the Israelites
• Solomon was chosen to succeed his father, David, in a new line of kings (_______________)
• Became king around 962 B.C.E.
• Ruled wisely over a strong nation
• Built up trade with the Phoenicians
• King of Tyre was a friend
• Built important Temple in Jerusalem
• Became known as ____________________________________
• Meant to be permanent home of the ____________________________________
• Required high taxes to
pay for build
• Also required men to give
a third of their time to
help build
Solomon’s Temple - Jerusalem
• Built in c. _________________________
• Destroyed in 587 B.C.E.
• Rebuilt in 516 B.C.E.
• Destroyed again in _________________
Review Question: Why did the Israelites
decide to choose a king?
The Kingdom Divides
Essential Question:
What was the outcome of the conflict among the Israelites?
Israel and Judah
• Solomon died in 922 B.C.E.
• Succeeded by son who faced rebellion
• Northern tribes demanded less taxes, and an end to forced labor
• Kingdom split into ___________________________________________________________
• Judah included the city of Jerusalem
• Words Judaism and Jews came from the name Judah
• Two kingdoms _______________________________________
Assyrians and Babylonians Strike
• By 738 B.C.E., Assyrians were forcing both kingdoms to pay tribute
• ________________ conquered and ended the Kingdom of Israel in
722 B.C.E.
• Assyrian Empire fell by 609 B.C.E.
• Large parts of empire conquered by the Babylonians around
612 B.C.E.
• Babylonia’s King Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem in 586
• ____________________________________________
• Took thousands of enslaved Jews to _________________
Review Question: What conflicts caused Israel to split into two
Jewish Exiles Return to Judah
Essential Question: What hope sustained the Jews in exile?
Beliefs During the Babylonian Captivity
• Exiles from Judah were in Babylon about 50 years – __________________________________
• Israelite exiles became known as Jews
• _________________________________________________
• observed religious laws, holidays, worship
• Israelites hoped to return to Judah and rebuild Temple in Jerusalem
• kept hoping for their own king, an heir to David’s throne
• Jews sought spiritual leaders’ advice in troubled times
• believed some leaders, ____________________, could interpret God’s word
• prophets warned people and rulers about straying from God’s laws
The Temple is Rebuilt
• Persians conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C.E.
• practiced ____________________________________
• Persian king _________________________ freed the Jewish exiles and allowed them to return to
• Jews rebuilt Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem by 515 B.C.E.
Review Question: How did the exiles maintain their identity in Babylon?
Roman Control
Essential Question: What was the result of Jewish resistance to Roman rule?
Rome Conquered Judea
• Roman conquered Judah (Judea) in 63 B.C.E.
• Roman rulers _______________________________________ over Judea
• Jewish kings, and religious leaders were appointed by the Romans
Resistance to Roman Rule
• The Zealots, a Jewish group, led a
__________________ against Rome in 66 C.E.
• Roman general Vespasian was sent to stop
• In 70 C.E., Titus stopped rebellion and
• some Jews fought on at Masada fortress,
but it was taken
The Great Diaspora
• Loss of Temple and Jerusalem caused many
• movement of Jews into the rest of the
world - the __________________; means
• Romans sent many Jews to Rome as slaves
• Some Jews remained in Jerusalem
Teachers and the Law
• Though scattered, many Jews kept their beliefs in righteousness and justice
• ____________________ - religious teachers and leaders - kept Jewish identity as a people
• built _________________________, places of worship and prayer, wherever Jews settled
• read Torah and its interpretations to the Jews
• Jews kept their faith, followed laws, observed customs, and studied Torah
Review Question: What was the lasting effect of Jewish resistance to Roman rule?
Lesson Summary
Saul, David, and Solomon were the first kings of Israel
After the death of Solomon, the kingdom of Israel split into two smaller kingdoms - Israel and
The Babylonian conquest
destroyed the Temple and forced
the people of Judah into exile in
The Romans harshly put down a
Jewish revolt
The Jews held onto their faith
Why It Matters Now...
• The laws, rituals, and writings
from these periods are an
important part of how Jews
practice their religion today.