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Hebrew Kingdoms and Captivity Main Ideas: Government – The Israelites built a small nation. Government – Conflict divided the Israelites and made them vulnerable to outside invaders. Belief Systems – The exiled Israelites returned to their homeland with beliefs that carried them through difficult times. Government – Jewish resistance to Roman control resulted in Jews being driven out of their homeland. Belief Systems – Living outside their homeland, many Jews remained loyal to their beliefs. The Kingdom of Israel Essential Question: Who were some of the early kings of Israel? Saul and David • _____________________separated Israelites from other regional groups • Traded with other groups, but did not adopt cultures or beliefs • Philistines invaded and conquered Israelite territory around 1029 B.C.E. • Israelites agreed to ___________________________________ to fight the Philistines • Israelites had feared a king having too much power A New Leader • First king,___________, successfully fought the Philistines around 1020 B.C.E. • Bible says that after Saul’s death, they chose his son-in-law, _____________, as king • David’s army drove out the Philistines • Won back __________________ - Became very important capital city of the Israelites Solomon • Solomon was chosen to succeed his father, David, in a new line of kings (_______________) • Became king around 962 B.C.E. • Ruled wisely over a strong nation • Built up trade with the Phoenicians • King of Tyre was a friend • Built important Temple in Jerusalem • Became known as ____________________________________ • Meant to be permanent home of the ____________________________________ • Required high taxes to pay for build • Also required men to give a third of their time to help build Solomon’s Temple - Jerusalem • Built in c. _________________________ • Destroyed in 587 B.C.E. • Rebuilt in 516 B.C.E. • Destroyed again in _________________ Review Question: Why did the Israelites decide to choose a king? The Kingdom Divides Essential Question: What was the outcome of the conflict among the Israelites? Israel and Judah • Solomon died in 922 B.C.E. • Succeeded by son who faced rebellion • Northern tribes demanded less taxes, and an end to forced labor • Kingdom split into ___________________________________________________________ • Judah included the city of Jerusalem • Words Judaism and Jews came from the name Judah • Two kingdoms _______________________________________ Assyrians and Babylonians Strike • By 738 B.C.E., Assyrians were forcing both kingdoms to pay tribute • ________________ conquered and ended the Kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C.E. • Assyrian Empire fell by 609 B.C.E. • Large parts of empire conquered by the Babylonians around 612 B.C.E. • Babylonia’s King Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E. • ____________________________________________ • Took thousands of enslaved Jews to _________________ Review Question: What conflicts caused Israel to split into two kingdoms? Jewish Exiles Return to Judah Essential Question: What hope sustained the Jews in exile? Beliefs During the Babylonian Captivity • Exiles from Judah were in Babylon about 50 years – __________________________________ • Israelite exiles became known as Jews • _________________________________________________ • observed religious laws, holidays, worship • Israelites hoped to return to Judah and rebuild Temple in Jerusalem • kept hoping for their own king, an heir to David’s throne • Jews sought spiritual leaders’ advice in troubled times • believed some leaders, ____________________, could interpret God’s word • prophets warned people and rulers about straying from God’s laws The Temple is Rebuilt • Persians conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C.E. • practiced ____________________________________ • Persian king _________________________ freed the Jewish exiles and allowed them to return to Judah • Jews rebuilt Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem by 515 B.C.E. Review Question: How did the exiles maintain their identity in Babylon? Roman Control Essential Question: What was the result of Jewish resistance to Roman rule? Rome Conquered Judea • Roman conquered Judah (Judea) in 63 B.C.E. • Roman rulers _______________________________________ over Judea • Jewish kings, and religious leaders were appointed by the Romans Resistance to Roman Rule • The Zealots, a Jewish group, led a __________________ against Rome in 66 C.E. • Roman general Vespasian was sent to stop uprising • In 70 C.E., Titus stopped rebellion and ________________________________________ • some Jews fought on at Masada fortress, but it was taken The Great Diaspora • Loss of Temple and Jerusalem caused many ______________________________________ • movement of Jews into the rest of the world - the __________________; means scattered • Romans sent many Jews to Rome as slaves • Some Jews remained in Jerusalem Teachers and the Law • Though scattered, many Jews kept their beliefs in righteousness and justice • ____________________ - religious teachers and leaders - kept Jewish identity as a people • built _________________________, places of worship and prayer, wherever Jews settled • read Torah and its interpretations to the Jews • Jews kept their faith, followed laws, observed customs, and studied Torah Review Question: What was the lasting effect of Jewish resistance to Roman rule? Lesson Summary • • • • • Saul, David, and Solomon were the first kings of Israel After the death of Solomon, the kingdom of Israel split into two smaller kingdoms - Israel and Judah The Babylonian conquest destroyed the Temple and forced the people of Judah into exile in Babylon The Romans harshly put down a Jewish revolt The Jews held onto their faith Why It Matters Now... • The laws, rituals, and writings from these periods are an important part of how Jews practice their religion today.