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Transcript
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
Department
Head/Instructor
Karen V. Dempsey
Instructor
Office hours
Office location
Terry J. Kennedy
Office phone
E-mail
Contact hours:
(203) 307-4031 Ext 386 or 391
M-F 7:00am-7:50am; 2:30pm-3:00pm; by appointment
229 D
karen.dempsey@ct.gov / terry.kennedy@ct.gov
Monday – Friday 7:00am – 3:00pm
Course Description: This course is designed to teach individuals the structure as well as the
function of all the anatomical organ systems. This will provide the
students with a knowledge that will enhance their performance in the
surgical arena.
Prerequesite:
Successful completion of Anatomy & Physiology I with a 75% average
or better.
I. Circulatory System: Cardiac
Desired Outcome
The learner will define the anatomic structures and describe the physiologic functions and
regulations of the heart.
Performance Objectives
1. Define terminology used in describing cardiovascular function.
2. List and describe anatomic structures of the heart.
3. Describe and identify the location and position of the heart.
4. Describe the flow of blood through the heart and lungs.
5. Identify the heart sounds and where in the cardiac cycle they occur.
6. Explain the regulatory mechanisms of heart rate.
7. Trace the conductile pathway of the heart.
Content Outline
1. Terminology for cardiovascular function
a. heart rate/pulse rate
b. stroke volume
c. cardiac output
d. blood pressure
e. normal sinus rhythm
f. tachycardia
g. bradycardia
h. fibrillation
i. ectopic beat
j. infarction
k. heart block
2. Anatomic structures of the heart
a. layers
1
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
b. chambers
c. valves
d. venae cavae
e. pulmonary veins and arteries
f. aorta
g. coronary arteries and veins
3. Location and position of the heart
a. mediastinum
b. apex
4. Flow of blood
a. atrial contraction
b. ventricular contraction
c. relaxation
5. Heart sound source
a. first heart sound
b. second heart sound
6. Regulating mechanisms of the heart rate
a. autonomic regulation
7. Conductile pathway of the heart
a. sinoatrial node (pacemaker of the
heart)
b. atrial myocardium
c. atrioventricular node
d. bundle of His and bundle branches
e. Purkinje fibers
f. Ventricular myocardium
II. Circulatory System: Vascular
Desired Outcome
The learner will list the various types of blood vessels, their anatomic differences, and the
major arteries and veins.
Performance Objectives
1. List the types of blood vessels.
2. List the differences in structure among arteries, veins, and capillaries.
3. Name and locate the major systemic arteries.
4. Name and locate the major systemic veins.
5. Describe fetal circulation.
6. List the major pulse points.
7. List and define factors that affect blood pressure.
Content Outline
1
. Types of blood vessels
a. large arteries
b. small arteries
c. arterioles
d. capillaries
e. venules
f. small veins
g. large veins
h. venous sinuses
2. Structure of each type
a. tunica externa (adventitia)
b. tunica media vasorum
c. tunica intima vasorum
d. valves
3. Major systemic arteries
a. aortic arch
b. brachiocephalic
c. common carotid
1. external carotid
2. internal carotid
d. circle of Willis
e. subclavian
1. vertebral
2. internal thoracic/mammary
2
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
3. axillary
4. brachial
5. radial and ulnar
f. thoracic aorta
1. intercostals
g. abdominal aorta
1. celiac trunk/axis
2. gastric
3. splenic
4. hepatic
5. superior mesenteric
6. renal
7. gonadal
8. inferior mesenteric
9. common iliac
(a) internal iliac
(b) external iliac
10. femoral
(a) superficial
(b) deep (profunda)
11. popliteal
12. posterior tibial
13. peroneal
14. anterior tibial
15. dorsalis pedis
4. Major systemic veins
a. inferior vena cava
b. superior vena cava
c. cranial venous sinuses
d. internal jugular
e. azygos system
f. portal system
g. superficial system, upper limb
1. cephalic
2. basilic
h. superficial system, lower limb
1. greater saphenous
2. lesser saphenous
5. Fetal circulation
a. placenta
b. umbilical vein
c. ductus venosus
d. foramen ovale
e. ductus arteriosus
f. umbilical arteries
6. Pulse points
a. carotid
b. radial
c. brachial
d. facial
e. superficial temporal
f. femoral
g. popliteal
h. dorsalis pedis
i. posterior tibial
7. Factors that affect blood pressure
a. cardiac output
b. peripheral vascular resistance
(vasoconstriction or dilatation)
c. elasticity of arteries
d. blood volume
e. blood viscosity
f. other
III. Circulatory System: Blood
Desired Outcome
The learner will describe blood components and their functions.
Performance Objectives
1. List the components of blood.
2. List the functions of blood.
3. Describe the structure and function of formed elements.
4. Define specific terms related to hematology.
3
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
5. Describe the principles of blood typing and tranfusions.
6. Discuss the Rh factor.
Content Outline
1. Components of blood
a. formed elements
b. plasma and components
2. Functions of blood
a. transportation of oxygen, nutrients, and
wastes
b. protection (immune system)
c. clotting mechanism
d. acid-base (pH) buffers
3. Structure and function of formed elements
a. red blood cells (erythrocytes)
b. white blood cells (leukocytes)
1. polymorphonuclear
2. mononuclear leukocytes
c. platelets (thrombocytes)
4. Terminology related to hematology
a. red blood cell count
b. hemoglobin
c. hematocrit
d. white blood cell count
e. differential white count
f. platelet count
g. coagulation studies
h. electrolyte studies
i. arterial blood gases (ABG’s)
j. serologic studies
5. Blood types
a. antigen types
b. antibodies in serum
c. type and crossmatching
d. complications of blood transfusion
6. Rh factor
a. Rh positive
b. Rh negative
c. Implications in pregnancy
IV. Lymphatic System
Desired Outcome
The learner will describe the components and functions of the lymphatic system and its
relationship to the circulatory system.
Performance Objectives
1. List the types and locations of lymph glands and lymphoid tissue.
2. Describe the functions of lymph glands.
3. Discuss the composition and drainage of lymph fluid.
4. List the major lymph ducts and their areas of drainage.
5. Define edema and describe reasons for its occurrence.
Content Outline
1. Types and locations of lymphoid tissue
a. types of tonsils
b. thymus
c. spleen
d. Peyer’s patches
e. regional lymph nodes
2. Functions of lymph glands
a. filter lymph fluid
b. produce T and B lymphocytes
c. produce monocytes
4
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
d. antibody formation
e. special functions of spleen
3. Lymph fluid
a. composition
b. drainage pathways
4. Lymph ducts
a. thoracic duct
b. right lymphatic duct
5. Edema
a. definition
b. causes
V. Respiratory System
Desired Outcome
The learner will list and describe the structure, function, and regulatory mechanisms of the
respiratory system.
Performance Objectives
1. List and locate the structures composing the respiratory pathway.
2. Describe the characteristics and functions of the respiratory system.
3. Describe the anatomic units of the lung.
4. Describe the pleural space.
5. Explain the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration.
6. Define terms used in describing and measuring respiratory volume.
7. Define terms describing breathing abnormalities.
Content Outline
1. Respiratory pathway
a. nares
b. nasal cavity (choanae)
c. nasal conchae (turbinates)
d. nasopharynx
e. oropharynx
f. laryngopharynx
g. epiglottis
h. larynx
i. vocal cords/arytenoids
j. trachea
k. carina
l. primary bronchi
m. secondary bronchi
n. bronchioles
o. alveolar ducts
p. alveoli
q. pulmonary capillaries
2. Physiology of respiratory pathway
a. characteristics of aforementioned
structures
b. functions of aforementioned structures
3. Lung units
a. hilum
b. lobes
c. bronchopulmonary segments
d. right and left sides
4. Blood supply
a. pulmonary artery
b. pulmonary vein
5. Pleural space
a. parietal pleura
b. visceral pleura
c. pleural recesses
d. pleural fluid
6. Mechanisms of inspiration and expiration
a. nervous control
1. medullary respiratory center
2. phrenic and intercostal nerves
3. vagus nerves
b. chemical control
1. carbon dioxide
5
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
2. oxygen
c. diaphragm in inspiration and expiration
d. intercostal muscles in inspiration and
expiration
e. changes in intrapleural pressures
f. changes in intrapulmonic (lung)
pressures
7. Terminology for respiratory volume
a. tidal volume
b. vital capacity
c. inspiratory reserve
d. expiratory reserve
e. residual volume
f. total capacity
g. other
8. Terminology for breathing abnormalities
a. hyperventilation
1. tachypnea
2. hyperpnea
b. apnea
c. dyspnea
d. hypoxia
e. hypercapnia
f. cyanosis
g. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
h. other
VI. Digestive System
Desired Outcome
The learner will describe the structure and function of the digestive system.
Performance Objective
1. Describe the pathway through the alimentary tract/canal.
2. Describe the general features of the abdominal cavity.
3. List the layers of the digestive tube wall.
4. List and locate the structures of the alimentary tract/canal and explain their functions.
5. List and locate the accessory digestive structures and describe their functions.
6. Describe the processing of basic nutrients.
7. Define terms associated with digestion and elimination.
Content Outline
1. Anatomic pathway
a. mouth
b. pharynx
c. esophagus
d. stomach
e. small intestine
f. large intestine/colon
g. rectum
h. anus
2. Anatomic points of attachment
a. ligament of Treitz
b. hepatic flexure
c. splenic flexure
3. Abdominal cavity features
a. peritoneum
1. parietal
2. visceral
3. peritoneal cavity
4. retroperitoneal space
b. peritoneal duplications
1. greater omentum
2. lesser omentum
3. omental bursa
4. mesentery
5. mesocolon
4. Layers of digestive tube wall
a. mucosa
b. submucosa
c. muscularis
d. serosa
6
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
5. Alimentary tract/canal
a. mouth/oral cavity
1. hard palate
2. soft palate and uvula
3. tongue
4. salivary glands
5. teeth
b. pharynx
c. esophagus
d. stomach
1. structure and location
2. functions
3. enzymes
e. small intestine
1. structure and location
2. functions
f. large intestine
1. structure and location
2. functions
3. associated structures
(a) teniae coli
(b) haustra
(c) epiploic appendices
(d) hepatic flexure
(e) splenic flexure
g. anal canal
1. structure and location
2. functions
5. Accessory digestive structures
a. salivary glands
1. types
2. structure and location
3. functions
b. liver
1. structure and location
2. functions
c. biliary system
1. gallbladder
2. biliary tree
3. functions
d. pancreas
1. structure and location
2. functions
6. Basic nutrients
a. carbohydrates
b. fats
c. proteins
d. mineral salts
e. vitamins
f. water
7. Terminology associated with digestion
and elimination
a. catabolism
b. anabolism
c. digestion
d. absorption
e. metabolism
f. peristalsis
g. defecation
h. regurgitation
i. reflux
j. ulcer
k. jaundice
l. diarrhea
m. constipation
n. incontinence
o. flatus
VII. Urinary System
Desired Outcome
The learner will list the structure, function, and regulatory mechanisms of the urinary
system.
Performance Objectives
1. Describe the structures of the urinary system and the functions of each.
2. Describe the parts of the nephron and their specific functions.
7
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
3. List and define the components of urine.
4. List common abnormal components of urine.
Content Outline
1.
Structures and functions
a. kidneys
1. anatomy
2. function
b. renal vessels
1. renal artery
2. renal vein
c. ureters
1. function
d. bladder
1. anatomy
2. function
e. urethra
1. anatomy
(a) male
(b) female
2. function
2. Urine composition
a. water
b. nitrogenous/metabolic wastes
c. mineral salts
d. crystals
e. pigment
3. Abnormal components of urine
a. glucose
b. albumin
c. blood
d. ketones/acetone
e. plasma proteins
f. bacterial/pus cells
g. casts
h. other
VIII. Reproductive System
Desired Outcome
The learner will list and describe the structure and function of the male and female
reproductive systems.
Performance Objectives
1. List and locate the anatomic structures of the female reproductive system.
2. List the functions of the female reproductive organs.
3. Define the stages of the menstrual cycle.
4. Define terms associated with pregnancy.
5. List and locate the anatomic structures of the male reproductive system.
6. Describe the functions of the male reproductive organs.
Content Outline
1. Structures of the female reproductive
system
a. external
b. internal
c. breast
2. Functions of the female reproductive
organs
a. vulva
b. vagina
c. glands
d. ovaries
e. fallopian tubes
f. uterus
g. breasts
8
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
3. Menstrual cycle
a. proliferative phase
b. ovulation
c. progestational phase
d. menstrual phase
a. external
b. internal
6. Functions of the male reproductive
organs.
a. penis
b. scrotum
c. urethra
d. testes
e. epididymis
f. vas deferens
g. seminal vesicles
h. ejaculatory ducts
i. prostate gland
7. Terminology related to male reproduction
a. ejaculation
b. retrograde ejaculation
c. impotence
d. spermatogenesis
e. semen
4. Terminology related to pregnancy
a. fertilization
b. implantation
c. placenta
d. amnion
e. chorion
f. embryo
g. fetus
h. gestation
i. gravity
j. parity
k. abortion
l. prematurity
m. other
5. Structures of the male reproductive
system
IX. Endocrine System
Desired Outcome
The learner will identify and locate the major endocrine glands and list the major
hormones and their functions.
Performance Objectives
1. Locate and describe the functions of the major endocrine glands.
2. Discuss the function(s) of each hormone produced by the major endocrine glands.
Content Outline
1. Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
a. location and structure
b. functions
1. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. trophic hormone transmitter
production
3. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
4. luteinizing hormone (LH)
5. growth hormone (GH)
6. adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH)
7. prolactin (PRL)
8. neural transmitter production
9. oxytocin (OXT)
10. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
11. vasopressin (VP)
2. Thyroid Gland
a. location and structure
b. functions
9
CTHSS Surgical
Technology
Programs
CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY
COURSE:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II
c. action(s) of hormones produced
1. thyroxine
2. calcitonin
3. Parathyroid glands
a. location and structure
b. functions
4. Adrenal/suprarenal glands
a. location and structure
b. functions
5. Pancreas: islets of Langerhans
a. location and structure
b. functions
6. Gonads
a. location and structure
b. functions
7. Thymus
a. location and structure
b. functions
Course Evaluation: Exams, quizzes, lab practical, dialogue center, homework assignments, written
and/or oral projects
Course Grade: The course grade for students in Surgical Technology will be weighted according to the
following activities and assignments:
10 % Project: This category include broad based assessment of class discussion and participation as
well as presentations (Oral or written) and role playing.
10 % Homework: This category may include but is not limited to preparation and completion of
assigned handouts, article/chapter summaries and questions, as well as in class assignments/projects.
10 % Quizzes: This category may include but is not limited to formal assessment which incorporates
in class or take home assignments
60% Course Assessments: This includes all forms of testing assessments. All students must achieve
a grade of at least 75% on the course assessment. Students who retake the formal assessment will
receive an average of the two grades. Make-ups due to absences will follow the policies of both
attendance and grading.
10 % Common Assessment: Common assessments given at the end of this course will count 10% of
the total grade. All students must achieve a grade of at least 75% on the common assessment.
Students who retake the common assessment will receive an average of the two grades.
Make-ups due to absences will follow the policies of both attendance and grading.
Texts for this Course
Delmar Fundamentals of
Anatomy and Physiology
Rizzo
978-1-435-43871-2
Medical Terminology
Systems
Gylys/Wedding
978-0-8036-2145-9
Right of Revision Statement:
The Eli Whitney Technical School, the Surgical Technology Program, Department Head and
instructors reserve the right to revise the syllabus at any time.
10