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binominal nomenclature
allele frequency
analogous structures
anatomical homologies
bottleneck effect:
behavioral isolation
the taxonomic name of an organism
that consists of the genus and specie
inherited characteristic that increases an
organism's chance of survival
similar amino acid sequences (DNA) among different
species from a common ancestor; evidence of common
number of times an allele occurs in a
gene pool
the study of the geographical
distribution of living things
anatomical structures that have
the same function but different
structures (butterfly's wings and bird's wings)
a change in allele frequency following a
drastic reduction in the size of a population
morphological(form or structure) or physiological
(function) similarities between different species of plants
or animals
diagram that shows the evolutionary
relationships among a group of organisms
form of reproductive isolation in which two populations
have differences in courtship rituals or other types of
behavior that prevent them from interbreeding
classification system
directional selection
disruptive selection
common ancestor
divergent evolution (adaptive
convergent evolution
dichotomous key
form of natural selection that occurs when individuals at
one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than
individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
a method to group and categorize
organisms based on similarities into taxa
form of natural selection that occurs when
individuals at both ends of a distribution curve have
higher fitness than individuals near the middle
the evolution of two or more interdependent
species, each adapting to changes in the other
a single species or small group of species evolves into
several different forms that live in different ways
the most recent ancestral form or species
from which two different species evolved
all of the different species on Earth
unrelated organisms independently evolve
similarities when adapting to similar environments
the highest level of classification;
larger than a kingdom
a tool that allows the user to determine the identity of
organims consisting of a series of choices that lead the
user to the correct name of a given item
founder effect:
Endosymbiotic Theory
gene flow
gene pool
genetic drift
fossil record
geographic isolation
change in allele frequencies as a result
of fhe migration of a small subgroup of a population
the study of embryos; evidence of
common ancestry
the transfer of alleles of genes from
one population to another
theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells formed from
symbiotic relationships among several different
prokaryotic cells (mitochondria & chloroplast)
the sum of all the genes in an
interbreeding population
is change in heritable traits of biological
populations over successive generations
change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a
population due to random sampling
ability of an organism to survive and
reproduce in its environment
form of reproductive isolation in which two
populations are separated physically by geographic
barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of
A term used by paleontologists to refer to the total
number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to
the information derived from fossils.
punctuated equilibrium
Kingdom characteristics
reproductive isolation
Kingdom classification
Miller-Urey experiment
natural selection
stabilizing selection
pattern of evolution in which long stable periods (stasis)
are interrupted by brief periods of rapid change
when speciation occurs over long periods of
time rather than by sudden major changes
the inability of a species to breed successfully with related
species due to geographical, behavioral, physiological, or
genetic barriers or differences
chart of charateristics
formation of new species
a group of closely related phylums
group of similar organisms capable of
interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
considered to be the classic experiment on how
organic molecules, such as amino acids, needed for life
were formed from inorganic material
form of natural selection that occurs when
individuals near the center of a distribution curve have
higher fitness than individuals at either end
1. produce more offspring than can survive
2. variations occur in a species
3. competition for limited resources
4. better adapted organisms are more likely to survive and reproduce
5. change in a population occurs over many generations
taxon (plural: taxa)
temporal isolation
vestigial structure
discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each
organism a universally accepted name; father is Carolus
a group or level of organization into
which organisms are classified
form of reproductive isolation that occurs when
members of two species occupy similar habitats, but breed
at different times
the differences within a single species
a structure that an organism has that is no longer serves a function, but
that they
have this structure because a common ancestor to that organism found it