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Transcript
V. States of Consciousness (2–4%)
Understanding consciousness and what it encompasses is critical to an appreciation of what is meant by a
given state of consciousness. The study of variations in consciousness includes an examination of the sleep
cycle, dreams, hypnosis, and the effects of psychoactive drug
AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:
• Describe various states of consciousness and their impact on behavior.
• Discuss aspects of sleep and dreaming:
— stages and characteristics of the sleep cycle;
— theories of sleep and dreaming;
— symptoms and treatments of sleep disorders.
• Describe historic and contemporary uses of hypnosis (e.g., pain control,psychotherapy).
• Explain hypnotic phenomena (e.g., suggestibility, dissociation).
• Identify the major psychoactive drug categories (e.g., depressants, stimulants)and classify specific
drugs, including their psychological and physiological effects.
• Discuss drug dependence, addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal.
• Identify the major figures in consciousness research (e.g., William James, Sigmund Freud, Ernest
Hilgard)
Lesson 1: Consciousness
I.
Waking Consciousness
A.
B.
Definition of Consciousness- Consciousness is the awareness of ourselves and
our environment
Historical Psychological Perspective on the Study of Consciousness
1.
2.
The emergence of behaviorism lessened the emphasis on the study of
consciousness
Consciousness as a legitimate field of psychological study reemerged in
the 1960s because of advances in neuroscience and interest in altered
C.
states of consciousness
Philosophical discussion on the Nature of Consciousness
1.
2.
3.
Mind-body problem: this explores what the relationship is between the
physical body and brain and the immaterial mind and consciousness
Dualism: Philosopher Rene Descartes saw the mind and the brain as
separate entities that interacted to produce free will
Materialism: This is the view that the mind is the brain and that complex
physical interactions between neurons create consciousness
II.
Levels of Consciousness
A.
Mental Processes Actually Occur at Different Layers or Levels
1.
Conscious level: this is the level at which a person is aware of mental
events at a given moment
2.
Nonconscious level: this is the level at which a person does not normally
3.
Preconscious level: this is the level at which a person’s mental events that
perceive or control mental processing consciously (e.g. blood pressure)
are outside of his/her current awareness can be brought into
consciousness voluntarily (ie remembering)
4.
Unconscious: This is a structure that Sigmund Freud theorized but did not
prove to exist that holds repressed memories/desires. Carl Jung believed
that the unconscious mind is connected with a collective unconscious
that contains ancestral memories
B.
Experiments Demonstrate the Existence of Levels of Consciousness We Are Not
Aware of
1.
"Priming": This is the term used for the phenomenon that people respond
more quickly and/or accurately to stimuli they have previously
experienced
2.
"Mere-exposure effect": This is the term for the phenomenon that people
like seeing stimuli they have previously seen more than new stimuli, even
when they do not consciously remember seeing them
III.
Altered States of Consciousness These are shifts from normal waking state of
consciousness
A.
Hypnosis, Psychoactive Drugs, Meditation, and Sleep All Produce Altered States
B.
Altered States of Consciousness Share Some Common Characteristics
of Consciousness
1.
IV.
Critical thinking is inhibited (eg dreamer may perceive an unrealistic
dream as logical while he/she is experiencing it)
Other terms
A.
Biological Clocks- internal timing devices that are genetically set to regulate
various physiological responses for different periods of time
1.
Some set for hours, single day, monthly
3.
Also influences variations in blood pressure, alertness and body
2.
For humans important in regulation of sleep
temperature. For example: body temperature peaks in the afternoon,
lowest around 3-4 am
4.
Location of biological clocks
a. Retina sends signals to small structure in the hypothalamus called
the suprachaiamatic neucleus (SCN)- the SCN receives light info
from a special set of ganglian cells in retina which then sends info
to areas in the hindbrain that promote sleep or wakefulness
b. The SCN signals the nearby pineal gland which secretes
5.
melatonin and plays a key role in adjusting biological clocks
Circadian problems and treatments
a. Accidents- tend to happen more after people have lost sleep
because of daylight savings time (when we have to spring
forward)
b. Jet Lag- tend to be less alert when we are traveling from the west
coast to the east coast b/c you lose hours of the day and it is
harder to adjust than when you move from east coast to the west
coast.
c. Resetting the clock- light therapy – using bright artificial lights to
combat insomnia and drowsiness
I.
Research has shown that shift workers exposed to bright
lights at the start of the shift then put on night shift will
show improvements in alertness, performance and job
6.
satisfaction
Melatonin- hormone secreted by pineal gland- increases with darkness
and decreases with light
7.
Daydreaming- mildly altered state of consciousness- attention turns
inward to memories, expectations and desires; often filled with vivid
mental imagery.
Lesson 2: Sleeping and Dreaming
I.
Sleeping
A.
B.
Definition of Sleep: Sleep is an altered state of consciousness in which people
become relatively, but not totally, unaware of external stimulation
Characteristics of Sleep
1.
Human sleep patterns follow a circadian rhythm corresponding to a 24
2.
Average adults experience four to six 90 minute cycles of NREM (non
½ to 26 hour daily cycle in the absence of external time cues
rapid eye movement) and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep per night,
although the ratio of NREM to REM sleep varies as the night progresses.
(Babies have 50% REM sleep whereas adults have 25-30% REM sleep…
3.
REM helps us store memories, babies obviously learn more earlier on)
Need for sleep varies among individuals, but ranges from 20 hours for
infants to 6 hours for adults in their 70s

Loss of sleep results in a suppressed immune system (# of T cells
decreases which increases the vulnerability to viral or bacterial
infection), impaired creativity and concentration, slowed
performance, and misperceptions on monotonous tasks

4.
Benefits of sleep include restoration of energy, repairing of brain
and body tissue, and release of growth hormones
A sleeper progresses through Stages 1 through 4, then climbs back from
Stage 4 to Stage 1 or 2, then experiences REM sleep
C.
5.
Forty to 50 percent of sleep takes place in Stage 2, which dominates the
6.
The average person progresses through the stages of sleep 4 to 6 times
transition phase after the first two-three sleep cycles
per night
Stages of sleep: Quiet Sleep and Active Sleep
1.
Stage 0: A person is relaxed with eyes closed

EEG shows alpha waves

This period of falling asleep is also called the hynagogic states
(may have a feeling of falling or floating during this stage)

The "waking" period between being asleep and wakefulness is
called the hypnopompic state
2.
Quiet Sleep: This is NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep

Stage 1 lasts from 30 seconds to 10 minutes (Note: All times are
approximate and vary considerably in duration from person to
person during a night's sleep). And is characterized by sensory
images and slow rolling eye movements and recognized by the
appearance of theta waves on an EEG

Stage 2 lasts about 20 minutes and is recognized by the
appearance of theta waves, sleep spindles, and K-complexes on an
EEG

Stage 3 is the transition to Stage 4 sleep, recognized on an EGG by
the beginning of delta waves

Stage 4 is deep sleep lasting about 30 minutes, recognized by
20%-50% delta waves in an EEG reading (Note. The amount of
time spent on Stages 3 and 4 varies as the night progresses.)
3.
Active Sleep
This is REM (rapid eye movement) state of consciousness following a
cycle of NREM sleep

Some researchers consider REM to be a separate state of
consciousness rather than a stage of sleep

Nearly all dreams occur in REM

Dreams that occur during REM are more vivid and story-like
than dreams that occur in sleep Stages 2 or 3

Periods of REM sleep typically increase during the night, from less
than a minute to an hour, and they total about 25% of an average
night’s sleep

REM sleep causes atonia which is temporary paralysis of the body
during REM

4.
The brain seems to be active and awake while the body shows loss
of muscle tone
REM Sleep Function

During REM, hormones are released that influence the thinking
process and counteract fatigue, irritability, and inattention

5.
REM rebound is a phenomenon of increased REM sleep following
a period of REM deprivation
NREM Sleep Function. During NREM sleep, the body replenishes itself
physically in several ways for example, the pituitary gland releases
II.
growth hormones, and body tissues are restored
Dreaming (children tend to dream more of animals and those animals are more likely to
be large and threatening. Women everywhere dream of children and men dream of
weapons, tools and aggression)
A.
Definition of Dreaming- Dreaming is a series of thoughts, images, or emotions
usually occurring in story-like form during sleep
1.
Duration of dreaming ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes to as
2.
Organization of dreaming is usually somewhat logical and story-like
3.
long as an hour
Lucid dreaming is a state of dreaming where the sleeper can direct the
dream or is aware that she/he is dreaming
B.
Theories of Dreaming
1.
Sigmund Freud viewed dreams as wish fulfillment in which the manifest
2.
Activation-synthesis theory states that the dream story results from the
content is a censored version of the latent content
brain trying to interpret meaningless, periodic, random neural firings
occurring during REM.
3.
III.
Problem solving/information processing theory states that dreams are
caused by peoples reviewing problems they faced during waking hours
Sleep Disorders
A.
Insomnia
This is the inability to sleep that causes daytime fatigue
1.
2.
Causes: Causes of insomnia includes depression and anxiety disorders,
stress, diet, genetics, and abnormal sleeping patterns.
Treatments: Treaments include sleeping pills, sleep restriction therapy
and stress management. Also:

B.
No caffeine after 3pm (including chocolate)

Sleep when tired

Wake up at the same time everyday

No naps

Don’t do activities that keep you up late at night

Use your bed only for sleep (don’t read, watch TV, etc.)

Don’t worry about not sleeping; get up if you can’t sleep
Narcolepsy
This is daytime sleeping disorder characterized by a sudden lapse into REM sleep
and loss of muscle tension
1.
Cause: Research indicates that genetic factors may play a role and that
medication often helps treat narcolepsy. Because narcoleptics fall into
REM sleep immediately, the brain mechanisms that suppress REM sleep
may be part of the cause of the disorder.
C.
2.
Treatments: Stimulants and napping
Sleep apnea
This is a disorder in which the sufferer briefly stops breathing during sleep,
wakes to resume breathing, and sleeps until the next stoppage, sometimes
hundreds of times a night, resulting in daytime fatigue; more often found in men
than women.
D.
1.
Causes: Causes include obesity, alcoholism, and genetic factors
2.
Treatments: include weight loss and use of nasal mask (C-PAP) while
sleeping which provides a steady stream of air
Parasomnias
1.
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome), is a disorder in which a sleeping
infant stops breathing and dies

Causes: Causes are unknown, a possibility is problems in how the
brain regulates breathing.

“Back to Sleep” program has reduced SIDS by 50%. Also
recommend removing all items from cribs including stuff
animals, pillows and crib bumpers.

2.
Treatments: Treatments include medication
Night terrors: There are intense frightening dreams during Stage 4 sleep,
most prevalent among young boys
3.

Causes: Causes are unknown

Treatments: Treatments include medication
REM behavior disorder is characterized by the sleeper’s physically acting
out dreams, sometimes violently


4.
Causes: Causes are unknown
Treatments: Medication is one treatment
Jet lag is a temporary pattern of fatigue, irritability, inattention, and
sleeping problems caused by a change in the normal sleep routine.

Causes: Disruption of normal sleep patterns is one cause

Treatment: Jet lag can be prevented or lessened by altering
sleeping habits before changing sleep routine and by avoiding
stimulants such as caffeine
5.
Sleepwalking (Somnambulism) is a delta-sleep parasomnia most common
6.
Bruxism is severe teeth grinding during sleep
7.
Myclonus is the condition of sudden muscle contractions that a sleeper
among young children
may experience soon after falling asleep
Lesson 3: Hypnosis and Meditation
I.
Hypnosis
A.
Definiton of Hypnosis
Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness that is characterized by increased
suggestibility to changes in experiences and behaviors. Highly controversial as
B.
to its effectiveness
History of Hypnosis
1.
Franz Anton Mesmer (late 1700s)
a.
b.
Mesmer was an Austrian physician.
Mesmer originated "Mesmerism" which is a procedure for
physical disorders
i.
In this procedure, afflicted body parts were thought to be
ii.
Some patients fell into a trance and awoke feeling better
iii.
There was little scientific basis; investigated by two
cured by passing magnets over the body
commissions that concluded results were due to
imagination
2.
James Braid (1795-1860)
a.
Braid was an English surgeon.
b.
He coined "hypnosis" from the Greek "hypnos" (sleep)
c.
3.
He explored hypnosis as a deep sleep-like state
Jean Charcot (1825-1893)
a.
b.
Charcot was a French neurologist.
He explained hypnosis as a hysterical condition with three stages
(lethargy, catalepsy, somnambulism)
4.
Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919)
a.
Bernheim was a professor of internal medicine.
b.
He explored hypnosis as a nonpathological state in which
c.
5.
hypnotic phenomena are primarily the result of suggestion
A major debate and disagreement ensued between Bernheim's
followers and Charcot's followers
Clark Hull (1920s)
a.
b.
Hull was a professor and researcher at the University of
Wisconsin and Yale University.
He established the first experimental hypnosis lab at University of
Wisconsin, Madison
c.
6.
C.
He was the first to demonstrate hypnotic phenomena were robust
in the lab
During the WWI and II eras, hypnosis was used as a psychological
intervention
Hypnotic Ability and Susceptibility
1.
2.
Openness to suggestion is key, not any special ability of the hypnotist
Twenty percent of people are highly hypnotizable; 10%
difficult/impossible
3.
Correlates are rich fantasy life, imagination, ability to focus attention and
4.
Expectancy plays a role
ignore distraction
D.
Effects of Hypnosis on Memory
1.
Age regression is one effect
a.
Hypnotized people are not more childlike than nonhypnotized
people who are asked to feign childlike behavior
b.
Inaccurate memories are common
2.
Relaxed reflection can sometimes boost recall
3.
False recollections and increased confidence in false memories often
4.
occur
Memories are often constructed, and hypnotized people are susceptible
to hints and suggestions
5.
6.
7.
Normal rules of memory formation, storage, and retrieval apply
Hypnotically induced memories may be unreliable, which many
therapists fail to appreciate
Posthypnotic amnesia is a condition in which a person is supposedly
unable to recall what he or she experienced while hypnotized (they may
E.
be told what happened and not believe that it actually happened)
Changes Exhibited During Hypnosis Changes include:
1.
Reduced intentionality and lack of initiation
2.
Redistributed attention
4.
Increased role-testing
5.
Reduced reality testing
1.
Hypnotized people are not more likely to perform antisocial acts than
2.
An authoritative person in a legitimate context is sufficient to induce
3.
F.
G.
Vivid imagination and fantasizing
Performance of Acts Against One's Will During Hypnosis
people who are asked to simulate hypnosis
unlikely acts
Controversy About Hypnosis as an Altered State
1.
Role and social influence theories suggest that:
a.
Hypnosis is not a special or altered state of consciousness, but
merely a person’s complying with social demands and acting a
social role
b.
c.
2.
Hypnosis is not a unique physiological state
Nonhypnotized persons can duplicate many aspects of behavior
of hypnotized persons
Altered state/divided consciousness theories suggest that:
a.
Existence of phenomena such as pain reducation and
hallucinations suggest that hypnosis is an altered state of
consciousness
b.
Divided consciousness, also known as the Hidden Observer
Theory (Ernest Hilgard) is a special state of dissociated (split)
consciousness in which normally centralized thoughts and
actions are temporarily reorganized and in which the subject is
aware of experiences that go unreported during hypnosis (hidden
observer)
H.
Uses of Hypnosis
1.
Some clinicians use posthypnotic suggestion to help patients control
undesired symptoms and behaviors; a posthypnotic suggestion is a
suggestion made during a hypnosis session to be carried out after the
subject is no longer hypnotized.
2.
3.
Hypnosis is used for pain control
Hypnosis is used as part of treatment therapies
a.
It is used in the treatment of headaches, asthma, warts, stressrelated skin disorders, self-control problems such as smoking,
weight control, and nail biting
b.
II.
of mere positive suggestion without hypnosis
Meditation
A.
It is unclear whether the benefits of hypnosis surpass the benefits
Meditation is a technique designed to create an altered state of consciousness
characterized by inner peace and tranquility. It is attention focused on one
thing, often a word or sound or object, until thoughts slow or stop.
B.
Physiological Effects
These include slower breathing, slower heart rate, lower muscle tension, lower
blood pressure, lower oxygen consumption, alpha wave EEG activity pattern
found in relaxed, eyes-closed waking state (EEG studies have found that 40% of
time spent meditating subjects are actually sleeping)
C.
Correlates (things we see in association with people who meditate)- These are
reduced anxiety levels, lower resting blood pressure, reduced insomnia,
improved self-esteem, and social openness
D.
Mechanism
1.
It is unclear what causes the health and emotional effects
2.
The same effects can also be attained by biofeedback, hypnosis, and
simple relaxation
Lesson 4: Drugs That Alter Consciousness
I.
Drugs and Altered Consciousness
A.
Definition of Psychoactive Drugs- these are drugs that affect the brain and
change consciousness and other psychological processes.
1.
2.
Most affect the brain by altering the interaction between
neurotransmitters and receptors
Drugs must cross the blood-brain barrier, a feature of the blood vessels
in the brain that prevents substances from entering the brain tissue
3.
Agonists bind to the receptors and mimic effects of normal
4.
Antagonists bind to the receptors and prevent normal neurotransmitters
5.
B.
neurotransmitters
from binding
Other drugs work by increasing or decreasing release of specific
neurotransmitters
Psychopharmacology- This is the study of psychoactive drugs and their effects
on behavior and mental processes
C.
Physical Dependence or Addiction- This is a physiological state in which drug
D.
Tolerance- this is a condition in which increasingly large drug doses are
E.
use is necessary to prevent a withdrawal symptom
necessary to achieve the same effect
Psychological Dependence- This is a condition in which the person continues
drug use despite adverse effects, needs the drug for a sense of wellbeing, and is
F.
II.
preoccupied with obtaining the drug if it is no longer available.
Learned Expectations Contribute to the Effects of Many Drugs
Categories of drugs
A.
Depressants reduce the activity of the central nervous system and increase the
activity of the inhibiting neurotransmitter gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA).
This reduces anxiety and combats insomnia.
1.
Alcohol causes memory problems: poor motor coordination, and can
suppress breathing and heartbeat to the point of fatality
a.
Genetic factors may contribute to an inhibition of, or
predisposition to alcohol dependence. Individuals who have
maladaptive psychological and emotional traits, like those with
impulsive behavior and are overemotional are more likely to be
alcoholics.
2.
b.
High potential for physical and psychological dependence
Barbiturates cause relaxation, mild euphoria, loss of muscle coordination
and lowered attention
a.
Withdrawal symptoms can be severe
c.
High potential for physical and psychological dependence
b.
3.
B.
Examples include sleeping pills and "downers"
Anxiolytics cause relaxation, anxiety reduction, or sleep
a.
They cause GABA to bind more effectively to receptors
b.
They can result in severe withdrawal symptoms
c.
With long-term use they can cause panic, confusion, anger, and
d.
Examples include Librium, Valium, and other tranquilizers
e.
A high potential exists for physical and psychological dependence
memory loss
Stimulants increase behavioral and mental activity.
1.
Amphetamines stimulate the brain and the sympathetic branch of the
autonomic nervous system, raise heart rate and blood pressure, constrict
blood vessels, shrink mucous membranes, reduce appetite, and increase
alertness and response speed
a.
Amphetamines increase the release and decrease the removal of
norepinephrine and dopamine at synapses, increasing activity at
2.
these receptors.
Cocaine causes euphoria, self-confidence, and optimism
a.
b.
It increases norepinephrine and dopamine activity by blocking
their reuptake, similar to amphetamines
Its use can lead to nausea, overactivity, insomnia, paranoia,
hallucinations, sexual dysfunction, seizures, heart attack, stroke,
and behavior problems in babies exposed to cocaine during their
mother’s pregnancy
3.
c.
It includes derivatives such as crack, which is purified, fast-
d.
A high potential exists for physical and psychological dependence
acting, potent, smokeable form
Caffeine reduces drowsiness, improves problem-solving ability, increases
capacity for physical work, raises urine production, induces anxiety, and
causes tremors. It is the most widely used drug.
a.
Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, chocolate, some soft drinks, and
b.
Withdrawal symptoms include: headaches, fatigue, anxiety,
c.
A moderate potential exists for physical and psychological
may be the world's most popular drug
shakiness, and cravings
dependence
4.
Nicotine causes elevated moods (arousal and then calm), improved
memory, and an increase in attention. Low doses improve attention,
concentration and memory.
5.
a.
It works as an acetylcholine agonist and increases the release of
b.
It is a major ingredient in tobacco
c.
Withdrawal symptoms include craving, anxiety, irritability, and
d.
Its use constitutes a major risk for cancer, heart disease, and
glutamate
lowered heart rate
respiratory disorders
MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), or "Ecstasy", causes visual
hallucinations, dry mouth, hyperactivity, muscle aches, fatigue,
depression and poor concentration
a.
b.
It increases activity of dopamine- releasing neurons and is a
serotonin agonist.
Its negative effects include permanent brain damage and
development of panic disorder
C.
c.
Opiates relieve pain and cause euphoria and relaxation
1.
Opium relieves pain and causes relaxation and feelings of wellbeing
a.
b.
2.
3.
D.
A low potential for physical and psychological dependence
It is derived from the poppy plant
It carries a high potential for physical and psychological
dependence
Morphine relieves pain and causes euphoria
a.
It is derived from opium
b.
A high potential exists for physical and psychological dependence
a.
It is derived from morphine, but 3 times as powerful
b.
A high potential exists for physical and psychological dependence
Heroin relieves pain and causes euphoria
Psychedelics cause loss of contact with reality; alter emotions, perception and
thought; and can cause hallucinations
1.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), or "acid", causes hallucinations, shortterm memory loss, paranoia, violent outbursts, nightmares, flashbacks,
and panic attacks
a.
It is a serotonin agonist
b.
It was developed by Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman in 1938
c.
Users develop a tolerance for it
d.
A low potential exists for physical and psychological dependence
2.
Marijuana causes euphoria, relaxation, food craving, time distortion, and
an increase in vivid sensations
a.
Its active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which
accumulates in fatty deposits in organs and the brain, affecting
receptors sensitive to anandamine
b.
It originates from the hemp plant (Cannabis sative)
c.
Negative effects include disruption of memory formation and
muscle coordination, motor skills impairment, lowered academic
achievement, confused reasoning skills, and harm to a developing
d.
3.
fetus
A low potential exists for physical dependence, moderate
potential for psychological dependence
PCP (Phencyclidine piperidine), also known as "Angel Dust," causes
euphoria, hallucinations, distorted sensations, violent tendencies, and a
masking of pain
a.
Negative effects include respiratory depression, generalized
seizure activity, pulmonary edema, and self-inflicted injury due
b.
to the complete masking of pain and tendency to violent activity
A high potential for physical and psychological dependence