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Environmental Science Name: ______________________________ Food and Agriculture Goal: The student will identify the major causes of malnutrition and compare the environmental costs of producing different types of food. Vocabulary: 1. Diet – 2. Yield – Chapter 9.1: Feeding the World • • • Ethiopa, 1985; people were starving (lack of rain, soil degradation, war); when rain came, it washed away millions of tons of soil into the rivers; resulted in 6,000 sq. mi. of desert Events like this present frightening pictures of how difficult it is to feed the Earth’s growing population Modern agricultural practices provide most of the world’s population with enough food to survive; however, efforts by us to feed more people in this world are causing this environmental damage, making it difficult to grow crops to feed all the people Humans and Nutrition • We must consume organic compounds in order to survive (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids); we also need vitamins and minerals to help our bodies function properly • Food is used as a source of energy and for building and maintaining our bodies; lack of enough food will result in sickness or death; starving people die from disease that our bodies cannot fight off; malnutrition is a result of not eating enough of the necessary nutrients Sources of Nutrition A person’s diet is the type and amount of food a person eats. Healthy diets are ones that maintain a balance of the right amounts of nutrients, minerals and vitamins. Most parts of the world, people eat large amounts of foods high in carbohydrates (rice, potatoes, break); foods produced in the greatest amounts are grains (plants whose seeds are rich in carbohydrates); aside from grains, most people eat fruits, vegetables and small amounts of meats, nuts and other foods rich in fats and proteins. Diets Around the World Worldwide, people generally consume the same major nutrients and eat the same basic kinds of foods; however diets can vary from region to region. More developed countries tend to eat more food and larger proportions of proteins and fats than people in less developed countries. ex: In US, almost half the calories consumed come from meat, fish and oil; In Japan, their diet traditionally consists of a mix of rice, vegetables and seafood. The Ecology of Food As human populations grow, farm land replaces forests and grasslands Feeding all the people of the world and still maintaining natural ecosystems is becoming more difficult Different types of agriculture present different environmental impacts and different levels of efficiency Food Efficiency The measure of the quantity of food produced on a given area of land with limited inputs of energy and resources An ideal food crop would be one that efficiently produces a large amount of food with as little negative impact on the environment as possible. More energy, water and land are used to produce food from animals than food from plants; plants are used to feed the animals who produce food for humans; less energy is available at each level of the food chain (10% is stored in the animals), therefore more food can be produced for humans when it is used for humans rather than for feed for animals One reason why diets around the world are largely based on plants (it is more efficient and more can be produced per acre); however, meat from animals provides more nutrients per gram than most food from plants Old and New Foods • Researchers are investigating ancient plants and looking at new varieties of plants • Looking for plants betters adapted to different climates and produce high yields without large amounts of fertilizers, pesticides and fresh water • Studying plants that have not been widely used for food in the past but may be useful • Ex: Amaranth – sacred food of the Aztecs and Glasswort – can be grown in saline soil Lesson Reflection: Learn how to read food labels. Each student will select a different food label and answer questions regarding the food label they have chosen. Assessment: 1. Identify the major causes of malnutrition. 2. Compare the environmental costs of producing different types of foods. Lesson Extension (Technology/Application/Connection to Real World): Food Label Activity: Nutrition Label Comparison Students will be comparing nutrition label for four types of potato products. They will determine what happens to the raw product when it is processed in various forms.