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AP European History
Final Exam Practice
Name __________________________ Date ___________________ Period _______
1-3. Questions refer to the following excerpt.
Finally, the Great Artisan mandated that this creature who would receive nothing proper to himself
shall have joint possession of whatever nature had been given to any other creature. He made man a
creature of indeterminate and indifferent nature, and said to him “Adam, according to your desires and
judgment, you will have and possess whatever place to live, whatever form you yourself choose. All
other things have a limited and fixed nature. We have made you so that with free choice you may
fashion yourself into whatever form you choose. To you is granted the power of degrading yourself
into the lower forms of life and to you is granted the power to be reborn into the higher forms, the
—“Oration on the Dignity of Man,” Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, 15th Century
The passage above represents the shift in European thinking from relying totally on the
teachings of Scholasticism to what type of thinking?
A. deductive reasoning
B. Renaissance humanism
C. inductive reasoning
D. Catholic reformation
Values that were important to Mirandola and others like him included?
A. secularism and individualism
B. nationalism and liberalism
C. alchemy and astrology
D. universal Christendom
Which of the following might have occurred as a result of the practices followed by Mirandola
and others like him?
A. new ideas in in astronomy
B. absolutism
C. religious conformity
D. greater ecclesiastical authority
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
4-6. Questions refer to the following document.
The Church has always understood that confession of sins was instituted by the Lord, and necessary
for all who have fallen into sin after baptism; the Lord Jesus Christ, when about to ascend from earth to
heaven, left his own vicars, before whom all mortal offenses into which the faithful have fallen should
be carried, so that they may pronounce forgiveness or retention of sins.
Venial sin whereby we are not excluded from the grace of God, into which we fall more frequently
may be omitted without guilt and expiated by other remedies. But since all mortal sins, even those of
thought, render men enemies of God; it is necessary to seek pardon from God for every mortal sin, by
a full confession…
—Council of Trent
The event that was most likely responsible for the Council of Trent was the
A. Protestant Reformation.
B. Scientific Revolution.
C. English Civil War.
D. Catholic Reformation.
Which of the following statements is most likely to be true based on the above document?
A. Habsburg rulers were successful in reinstituting Catholicism in their lands.
B. Protestant leaders quickly reconverted to Catholicism based on this document.
C. There was a revival of the Catholic Church, but Christianity remained divided.
D. The Holy Roman Empire was able to regain territory lost as a result of the division in
Based on the document and your knowledge, which of the following would be the most likely
to agree with the general tone of the document?
A. Martin Luther
B. John Calvin
C. Henry VIII
D. Jesuits
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
7-9. Questions refer to the following map.
ca. 1600–1650
The event that most likely led to the process seen above was the
A. establishment of plantation agriculture in the Americas.
B. rise of mercantilism.
C. Protestant Reformation.
D. development of absolutism in France.
8. Which of the following countries was the least likely to have been involved in the process seen on
the map?
A. Portugal
B. England
C. Prussia
D. Spain
Based on the map and your knowledge, which of the following would be the most likely result
of what is seen on the map?
A. a period of cooperation among European powers as they settled the New World
B. the domination of South America by England and France
C. the domination of North America by the Spanish and Portuguese
D. the competition for trade leading to conflicts and rivalries among European powers
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
10-12. Questions refer to the following map.
16th-century France
The passage above represents
A. France during the Age of Religious
B. state building in the 15th century.
C. the development of
D. the development of absolutism.
Based on the map above and your knowledge, which of the following is the most correct
A. European monarchs were all in favor of the Protestant Reformation.
B. European monarchs were all in favor of the Catholic Reformation.
C. This led to a unique situation where religious pluralism was allowed.
D. This led to a dramatic increase in religious toleration throughout Europe.
Which of the following would be the most likely to agree with the spread of Huguenot holdings
in France?
A. Martin Luther
C. Charles V
B. Louis XIV
D. John Calvin
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
13-15. Questions refer to the following image.
Jacques Necker, Finance Minister and Louis XVI of France
On the wall, a list of royal loans is headed
“New ways to revive France” - but the total is “Deficit.”
In what context was this 1780s cartoon created?
A. an “enlightened” approach to government finance
B. a proposal to present to the “national assembly” after the Oath of the Tennis Court
C. as an alternative to the confiscation of Church property
D. as a means of increasing revenue without taxation
What institutional circumstance in eighteenth century France produced the circumstance
portrayed in the cartoon?
A. The large number of people still classified as serfs.
B. Exemptions of both clergy and nobles from taxation.
C. Absolute monarchy had deprived nobles of social and political influence.
D. The French economy produced little in export quality goods.
What was the chief consequence of the situation portrayed in the cartoon?
A. Louis XVI was forced to convene a meeting of the Estates General.
B. Napoleon Bonaparte seized power in a coup d’etat.
C. A revolutionary tribunal ordered the execution of the royal family.
D. The French franc collapsed and an urban revolt, the Commune, arose.
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
16-19. Questions refer to the following image.
Anonymous, eighteenth century
“To Versailles, to Versailles”
This event, the Women’s March to Versailles in October, 1789, illustrates that
A. women of all classes were involved in revolutionary activity.
B. women were responsible for the execution of Louis XVI and his family.
C. Versailles was seen as a symbol of the oppression and isolation of the king from the people.
D. all classes of French men and women were enlisted in the ranks of the army during the wars
associated with the revolution.
What motivated women to march to Versailles in October, 1789?
A. They were demanding equality for women under the new French constitution.
B. Bread remained scarce and prices high during the summer and fall of 1789.
C. Troops were massing at Versailles as Louis XVI prepared to use force against the
D. Louis XVI has issued an explicit order requiring confiscation of all weapons in Paris,
prompting women to arch in protest.
The Women’s March to Versailles was significant in the course of the French Revolution
because it
A. resulted in the passage of a women’s suffrage bill.
B. resulted directly in the death of the King and the royal family.
C. placed the King and royal family within the reach of Parisian mobs.
D. caused the members of the National Constituent Assembly to drop the categorization of
citizens into “active” and “passive.”
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
Which statement best captures the role of women during the period 1789–1795?
A. Women were involved in every stage of the revolution, but their involvement was always
B. The chief involvement of women was in the Women’s March to Versailles, afterward they
had no role.
C. As in the later Russian Revolution (1917), women achieved equality and even served in the
D. Women were granted the right to vote initially, but were disfranchised during the Reign of
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
20-22. Questions refer to the following passage.
A government of the nature of that set up at our very door has never been hitherto seen, or ever
imagined in Europe…France, since her revolution, is under the sway of a sect, whose leaders have
deliberately, at one stroke, demolished the whole body of that jurisprudence which France had pretty
nearly in common with other civilized countries…
Its foundation is laid in regicide, in Jacobinism, and in atheism, and it has joined to those principles a
body of systematic manners, which secures their operation…Jacobinism is the revolt of the
enterprising talents of a country against its property. When private men form themselves into
associations for the purpose of destroying the pre-existing laws and institutions of their country; when
they secure to themselves an army, by dividing amongst the people of no property the estates of the
ancient and lawful proprietors, when a state recognizes those acts; when it does not make confiscations
for crimes, but makes crimes for confiscations; when it has its principal strength, and all its resources,
in such a violation of property…—I call this Jacobinism by establishment.
—Edmund Burke, Letters on a Regicide Peace, 1796
By “Jacobinism” Burke is referring to which of the following?
A. a French sans culotte named Jacob who promoted revolutionary violence
B. the republican supporters of the Reign of Terror in France
C. foreign radicals who immigrated to England from France during the Revolution
D. supporters of a federal republic in France with a weaker central government
What audience did Burke most likely seek to influence in this letter?
A. fellow Whigs and other leaders in Great Britain
B. radical republicans in France
C. sans culotte supporters of the Reign of Terror
D. influential Americans and other neutral parties
Burke’s ideas in this work and his Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) sparked a
political school of thought most often known as
A. Radicalism.
B. Liberalism.
C. Conservatism.
D. Socialism.
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
23-26. Questions refer to the following map.
The map indicates that Napoleon’s greatness as a leader rested in part on
A. France’s naval superiority.
B. Napoleon’s strategic and tactical genius.
C. the economic dependency of most of Europe on French goods.
D. France’s relative isolation from most of her enemies.
The map suggests that Napoleon’s military successes contributed to what other Napoleonic
A. dampening local nationalism in favor of pro-French sentiment
B. crushing the British economy through his “Continental System”
C. establishing the Napoleonic Code and abolishing local hereditary social distinctions
D. establishment of Roman Catholicism as the official state religion across most of Europe
Napoleon’s “Continental System” was based chiefly on
A. the doctrine of laissez faire or free trade.
B. French domination of most of the European continent.
C. the inability of Great Britain to supplement its economy through North and South American
D. Russia’s consistent support for economic dependence on France.
A major factor in Napoleon’s loss of empire was his
A. defeat in Russia.
B. loss of confidence in past successes.
C. alliance with the Ottoman Empire.
D. refusal to interfere in Anglo-American commerce.
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
27-29. Questions refer to the following image.
Gin Lane by William
Hogarth, 1751
The publication of this work occurred in the context of increased consumption of gin as a
consequence of
A. increases in urban populations and poverty.
B. crop failures in the countryside.
C. the failure of the government to regulate gin sales.
D. sophisticated marketing techniques by gin producers.
What would best describe the nature of this work?
A. caricature or cartoon
B. advertisement
C. public service announcement
D. government publication
What other social development of the period likely contributed to the publication of this work?
A. underproduction of cereal crops
B. feelings of isolation and degradation in urban areas
C. declining numbers of middle class or “bourgeois” population
D. the increasing trend toward monopolies in productive enterprises
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
30-31. Questions refer to the following image.
Eugene Delacroix, Massacre at Chios (1824)
Who were the Greeks attempting to gain independence from in this image?
A. the Austrians
B. the Ottomans
C. the Prussians
D. the Russians
All of the following were reasons western European nations offered support to the Greeks in
their independence movement except
A. Europeans believed the revolt in Greece was the reappearance of ancient Greek democracy
in the region.
B. Governments in Western Europe felt that supporting the revolution was an attack against
Ottoman despotism.
C. Western Europeans argued that an independent Greece would give them more stable trade
relations in the region.
D. European Christians were deeply concerned about the treatment of Greek Christians in the
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
32-34. Questions refer to the following excerpt.
“In the nineteenth century, a series of developments transformed the practices of Western medicine.
Before this time, physicians assumed that bad blood caused illness and so relied on practices such as
leeching (attaching leeches to the skin) and bloodletting (slicing open a vein). Ignorant of the existence
of bacteria and viruses, doctors attended one patient after another without bothering to wash their
hands or surgical instruments. The only anesthetic was alcohol. Patients and doctors regarded pain as
something inevitable, something to be endured rather than eased.
Urbanization overwhelmed such traditional medical practices. Expanding urban populations served as
seedbeds for contagious diseases.”
—Brian Levack, Edward Muir, and Meredith Veldman, The West: Encounters and Transformations
Which of the following scientists sought solutions for the problems identified by the authors in
this passage?
A. Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister
B. Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer
C. Jules Ferry and Jules Simon
D. Sydney and Beatrice Webb
Which of the following nineteenth century disease outbreaks illustrates the problems identified
in this passage?
A. a smallpox outbreak in France’s Normandy region
B. the reappearance of the Black Plague in the Low Countries
C. London’s cholera outbreak
D. a tuberculosis epidemic in Italian factories
How did solutions to the medical problems discussed in this passage also contribute to
A. The Europeans offered famine relief opportunities to African nation-states, giving them a
foothold in those states.
B. It gave the Europeans protection against the tropical diseases they encountered during
C. The Europeans were able to use the issue of clean water in urban areas as a pretext for
involvement in Indian political affairs.
D. European governments traded medical technology for greater access to critical port cities.
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
35-37. Questions refer to the following excerpt.
“Great clouds of smoke appeared all along the front of the British and Soudanese brigades. One after
another four batteries opened on the enemy at a range of about 3,000 yards…The infantry fired
steadily and stolidly, without hurry or excitement, for the enemy were far away and the officers
careful…The empty cartridge-cases, tinkling to the ground, formed a small but growing heap beside
each man. And all the time out on the plain on the other side bullets were shearing through flesh,
smashing and splintering bone; blood spouted from terrible wounds, valiant men were struggling on
through a hell of whistling metal, exploding shells, and spurting dust – suffering, despairing, dying…
…the great Dervish army, who had advanced at sunrise in hope and courage, fled in utter route,
pursued by the Egyptian cavalry, harried by the 21st Lancers, and leaving more than 9,000 wounded
behind them. Thus ended the battle of Omdurman – the most signal triumph ever gained by the arms of
—Winston Churchill, from River Of War: An Historical Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan,
What accounts for the military success that Winston Churchill discussed in this passage about
the uprising in the Sudan?
A. superior training by the British military leadership
B. Ottoman intervention that broke Sudan supply lines
C. technological advantages that developed from the Second Industrial Revolution
D. an alliance between French and Algerian troops who fought among the reserve troops
What was the most significant reason the British were involved in this region of Africa at the
turn of the century?
A. The British did not want to see the French control any land in the Saharan Desert.
B. The Egyptians petitioned the English government to help them against the Ottoman Empire.
C. The British wanted to control access to the Nile River and the Suez Canal.
D. The British agreed to serve as the impartial mediator between Egypt and the Sudan.
37. How were British-French tensions in the Sudan region resolved differently during the Fashoda
Crisis than during the conflict Winston Churchill wrote about in this passage?
A. The British and French each used colonial troops, rather than European troops, to fight each
B. The Europeans turned to diplomacy rather than warfare to resolve their differences.
C. Both states turned to other European allies to help fight the conflict in the Sudan.
D. The fighting over control in the Sudan spilled beyond the borders of Sudan and into Egypt
and Algeria.
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
38-40. Questions refer to the following excerpt.
“It may be said that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, every
variation, even the slightest; rejecting that which is bad, preserving and adding up all that is good;
silently and insensibly working, whenever and were ever opportunity offers at the improvement of
each organic being… We are nothing of these slow changes in progress, ntil the hand of time has
marked the long lapse of ages, and then so imperfect is our view into long past geological ages, that we
see only that the form as of life are now different from what they formerly were.”
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species, 1859
38. Darwin’s “natural selection”, as described in the excerpt, is an important principle in support of
Darwin’s theory of
A. evolution
B. the religious origins of humans
C. scientific racism
D. imperial conquest
39. Darwin’s explanation of “natural selection” was undoubtedly influenced by the doctrines on
population and its limitation by the food supply as devised by
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Friedrich Nietzsche
C. Thomas Malthus
D. John Stuart Mill
40. Which of the following was famous for applying “natural selection” to social situations as well as
A. Herbert Spencer
B. Gustave Flaubert
C. V.I. Lenin
D. Charles Stewart Parnell
41-43. Questions refer to the following excerpts.
“[Was there] ever in history…a government that was based solely on popular consent and that
renounced all use of force whatsoever…Take away from any government whatsoever force - and by
force is meant physical, armed force - and leave it only its immortal principles, and that government
will be at the mercy of the first organized group that decides to overthrow it.”
—Benito Mussolini, Force and Consent, 1923
“…[P]arty organization, system of education, and discipline can only be understood when considered
in relation to its general attitude toward life…[It] sees not only the individual but the nation and the
country; individuals and generations bound together by a moral law, with common traditions and a
—Giovanni Gentile and Benito Mussolini, Fascism Doctrine and Institutions, 1935
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
These beliefs focused on all of the following except
A. historic nationalism.
B. militarism.
C. national educational system.
D. elections to place the most powerful man in office.
The writers of these documents would disagree with what nineteenth-century movement?
A. liberalism
B. conservatism
C. industrialism
D. capitalism
Which of the following shares most of its beliefs about state-building with these documents?
A. Nazis
C. Communists
B. Socialists
D. Utopians
44-46. Questions refer to the following excerpts.
“The movement of coal and steel between member countries will immediately be freed from all
customs duty…Conditions will gradually be created which will spontaneously provide for the more
rational distribution of production at the highest level of productivity.”
—Robert Schuman, Schuman Declaration, May 9, 1950
“British citizens are able to travel, study, work, retire, get fairer legal redress and obtain free medical
help anywhere in Europe, without restrictions. We work together better to stop international gangs
bringing drugs, terrorism and illegal immigrants into our country. It provides a network of trade, aid
and cooperation that covers most of the world, giving us greater influence, stability and prosperity.”
—British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, message to House of Commons, June 16, 2004
The organization discussed in these documents was formed because of a desire to
A. prevent France and Germany from going to war.
B. stop the trading of goods such as drugs across the European continent.
C. offer a viable alternative to the United Nations.
D. provide a venue for countries across Europe to discuss the post-WWII rise of the Soviet
As this organization evolved during those 54 years, one of its most significant changes in focus
A. creating an active military force that fought in such areas as Bosnia.
B. reaching out to Eastern European countries, such as the Czech Republic.
C. demanding that the United Kingdom end its use of the pound.
D. aligning itself with NATO against the Warsaw Pact.
All of the following countries currently belong to the organization except
A. Italy.
C. Austria.
B. Spain.
D. Russia.
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
47-49. Questions refer to the following excerpts.
“Comrades, the workmen’s and peasant’s revolution, the need of which the Bolsheviks have
emphasized many times, has come to pass…Its significance is, in the first place, that we shall have a
soviet government, without the participation of bourgeoisie of any kind. The oppressed masses will of
themselves form a government…We have now learned to work together in a friendly manner, as is
evident from this revolution.”
—Vladimir Lenin, speech, Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, November 8, 1917
“The Commission is to be called the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Struggle with
Counter-Revolution and Sabotage and is to be attached to the Council of People’s Commissars…The
Commission shall keep an eye on the press, saboteurs, right Socialist Revolutionaries and strikers.
Measures to be taken are confiscation, imprisonment, confiscation of cards, publication of the names
of the enemies of the people, etc.”
—Vladimir Lenin, St. Petersburg, December 20, 1917
Prior to the first document, all of the following had occurred in 1917 except
A. the rule by Kerensky.
B. the Kornilov Insurrection.
C. the murder of Nicholas II and his family.
D. the October Revolution.
Lenin’s mention of the need for a new type of government was in reference to ending the
A. tsarist government.
B. Provisional Government.
C. Russian involvement in World War II.
D. Russian alliance with the German bourgeoisie.
Which of the following most likely led Lenin to make his December 20th statement?
A. After his initial statement in November, peasants fought back against the revolution.
B. Newspapers openly criticized the new Bolshevik government.
C. Counter-revolutionaries, such as the Petrograd Soviet, worked against Lenin’s government.
D. Bourgeois members of the Bolshevik government spoke out against Lenin’s inordinate
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
50-52. Questions refer to the following image.
German housewife, Germany, 1923
To light her stove, this woman is using her nation’s currency, the
A. dollar.
B. euro.
C. franc.
D. mark.
The best term for the problem with this currency is
A. hyperinflation.
B. deflation.
C. arbitrage.
D. regulatory risk.
All of the following are reasons why Germans faced this situation with their currency except
A. the devastation of World War I.
B. Germany’s link through the Dawes Plan to the American economy.
C. the underground work by the Nazis that caused the failure of the Dawes Plan.
D. the October, 1929 stock market crash in the United States.
AP European History
Final Exam Practice
53-55. Questions refer to the following excerpt and image.
“Access to divorce increased, which many observers viewed as particularly important to
women…Development of new birth control methods, such as the contraceptive pill introduced in 1960,
as well as growing knowledge and acceptability of birth control, decreased unwanted pregnancies. Sex
and procreation became increasingly separate considerations. Although women continued to differ
from men in sexual outlook and behavior—more than twice as many French women as men, for
example, hoped to link sex, marriage, and romantic love, according to 1960s polls—more women than
before tended to define sex in terms of pleasure.”
—Peter Stearns, et al, World Civilizations: The Global Experience, 2011
Women’s liberation protest, London, 1971
The developments mentioned by Stearns came about as a direct outgrowth of
A. women gaining the right to vote in the mid-20th century.
B. the British movement led by Emmaline Pankhurst.
C. women gaining more rights in the workplace.
D. the concern with the rising mortality rate of children.
One of the main countries to welcome more methods of contraception was
A. Italy.
B. France.
C. Spain.
D. the United Kingdom.
What faith was particularly influential in the pushback against the movement dealt with in the
A. Roman Catholicism
B. Anglicanism
C. Lutheranism
D. Calvinism