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Transcript
6. Earthquakes that shouldn’t happen
DIFFUSE BOUNDARY
ZONES
INTRAPLATE
NARROW
BOUNDARIES
Most earthquakes are on plate boundaries, but some are
within plates - intraplate.
Almost all large
earthquakes in North
America are in the western
plate boundary zone.
To see New Madrid, we
plot down to magnitude 5,
which aren’t very big & do
little harm.
1900 -
M>3
To resolve details, plot
eastern North America
down to magnitude 3.
See New Madrid and other
similar eastern earthquake
zones.
DD 10.1
Charleston, South Carolina 1886 M ~ 7
Similar to New Madrid 1811-12
Damaged buildings - especially brick & caused about 60
fatalities
Similar sand blows
Recovery took about five years
DD 10.2
Grand Banks, Newfoundland 1933
M 7.3
Caused landslide & tsunami
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Broke transatlantic cables
Intensity pattern like
1811-12
GSC
Earthquakes require
-Faults to slip on
- Force (stress) to cause motion of faults
At plate
boundaries,
faults are the
boundaries and
plate motions
provide stresses
that cause
motion
What about
within
continental
plates?
Granite continents vs basalt oceans
Continental crust is less dense,
so continents are higher than
ocean basins
Continents float above denser
mantle
Continents don’t subduct, unlike
oceans
Continents formed earlier in Earth
history and can reach ages of
billions of years compared to 200
Ma oceans
DD 10.3
WILSON
CYCLE
East African
Rift
Continental
Oceanic
lithosphere is rifting
formed at
Young ocean
midocean
ridges &
destroyed at
subduction
zones
Continental
plates are
rifted apart
and then
collide, but
survive
DD 10.4
Gulf of
Aden, Gulf
of California
Andes
Ocean-continent convergence
Southern
Europe
Closing
ocean
Continental
collision
Stein &
Wysession,
2003
Himalaya
Zagros
Global Plate Tectonics
Jurassic to Present Day
By
L.A. Lawver, M.F. Coffin, I.W.D. Dalziel
L.M. Gahagan, D.A. Campbell, and R.M. Schmitz
2001, University of Texas Institute for
Geophysics
February 9, 2001
Activity 6.1: Wilson cycle
When does the North Atlantic rift open?
When does the South Atlantic rift open?
When does India collide with Eurasia?
When does Arabia rift away from Africa?
Some
continental
rifts fail to
split a
continent
Leave “failed
rift” - long
valley of
stretched &
faulted rock
that gets filled
up & buried
by sediments
MCRS
Midcontinent
Rift system
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Failed to split
North America
~1.1 Ga
(billion years
ago)
Activity 6.2
Why does the MCRS
show up so well in
gravity & magnetic
maps?
USGS
Shay &
Trehu,
1993
Over billions of
years, continents
retain structures
formed by rifting,
collisions, failed
rifts, basin
formation,
faulting, etc
Stresses within
the plate - from
various sources can reactivate
these & cause
intraplate
earthquakes
S. Marshak
A set of failed
rifts, the Reelfoot
Rift and Rough
Creek Graben,
are associated
with the New
Madrid &
Wabash Valley
seismic zones
S. Marshak
Activity 6.3: Spot formation of the
MCRS and Reeflfoot/Rough creek rifts
Whitmeyer & Karlstrom 2007
Reelfoot Rift formed when supercontinent
of Rodinia broke up
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
DD10.5
Meert & Torsvik,
2003