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Diet and
Nutrition and Chronic Disease
• Healthy People 2020
• Disease
promotion objectives
• Increase the quality and
years of healthy life
• Eliminate health
• Obesity and chronic
• Physical inactivity and
chronic disease
Reproduced from U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
Healthy People 2020. Washington, DC.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
• Leading
cause of
death in
the United
The Cardiovascular System and
Cardiovascular Disease
• What is atherosclerosis?
• Coronary heart disease
• Cholesterol and Atherosclerosis
• Hypercholesterolemia
• Lipoprotein a [Lp(a)]
• Inflammation and Atherosclerosis
• C-reactive protein (CRP)
Cardiovascular Disease
• Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis
High blood pressure
High blood cholesterol
Cigarette smoking
Physical inactivity
Family history
Cardiovascular Disease
• Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for
Reducing Atherosclerosis Risk
• Balance calories and activity to achieve or
maintain healthy body weight
• Consume a diet rich in fruits and
• Choose whole-grain, high-fiber foods
• Consume fish, especially oily fish, at least
twice a week
Cardiovascular Disease
• Factors for Reducing Atherosclerosis
• Limit saturated and trans fat and cholesterol
• Minimize intake of beverages and foods that
contain added sugar
• Choose and prepare foods with little or no
Cardiovascular Disease
• If you consume alcohol, do so in
• When you eat food that is prepared outside
of the home, follow the AHA’s Diet and
Lifestyle recommendations
• Other dietary factors
• Soy
Cardiovascular Disease
• Putting it all together
• Healthy People 2020 objectives target
reducing deaths from heart disease and
“Silent killer”
Blood pressure
© Paul Maguire/ShutterStock, Inc.
• Stress
• Risk Factors
Eating too much salt
Lack of physical activity
Drinking too much alcohol
• Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for
Reducing Hypertension
• Sodium
• Other dietary factors
• The DASH Diet
• Control diet
• Fruit and vegetable diet
• Combination diet
• Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for
Reducing Cancer Risk
• Recommendations for Individual Lifestyle
• Maintain a healthful weight throughout life
• Adopt a physically active lifestyle
• Eat a healthy diet, with an emphasis on
plant sources
• If you drink alcoholic beverages, limit
• Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for
Reducing Cancer Risk
• Fat
• Vegetables and fruits
• Whole grains and legumes
Diabetes Mellitus
• Definition and types
• Type 1
• Type 2
• Pre-diabetes
• Gestational
• Hypoglycemia
• Risk factors
Diabetes Mellitus
• Dietary and Lifestyle Factors for
Reducing Diabetes Risk
• Management
• Diet
• Physical activity
• Medications
• Nutrition
Metabolic Syndrome
• Cluster of three of the following risk
Abdominal obesity
High fasting blood glucose
High serum triglycerides
Low HDL cholesterol
Elevated blood pressure
• Definition
• “Porous bone”
• Risk factors
• Reducing the risk
Vitamin D
Vitamin A
Nutrition and Women’s Health
• It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition
and Dietetics (AND) and Dietitians of Canada
(DC) that women have specific nutritional
needs and vulnerabilities and, as such, are at
unique risk for various nutrition-related
diseases and conditions.
• Therefore, AND and DC strongly support
research, health promotion activities, health
services, and advocacy efforts that will enable
women to adopt desirable nutrition practices
for optimal health.
The Role of Dietetics Professionals in
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
• It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and
Dietetics that health promotion and disease
prevention endeavors are the best population
strategies for reducing the current burden of
chronic disease.
• Dietetics professionals should be actively
involved in promoting optimal nutrition in
community settings and should advocate for the
inclusion of healthy eating, in addition to other
health-promoting behaviors, in programs and
policy initiatives at local, state, or federal levels.
Coronary Heart Disease
• A number of studies have shown components
of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk
of coronary heart disease (CHD).
• A recent study proved that this is correct.
• Those in the highest fruit and vegetable
intake group (top 20% who averaged 9–10
servings per day) had significantly fewer CHD
events compared to those in the lowest fruit
and vegetable intake group (lowest 20% who
averaged less than 3 servings per day).
Balancing Calorie Intake and
Physical Activity
• To avoid weight gain, calorie intake needs to
match calorie output. Awareness of calorie
content of foods and beverages along with
control of portion sizes are major steps
toward calorie control.
• Current recommendations suggest engaging
in a minimum of 30 minutes of moderateintensity activity on most days of the week;
more activity would reduce heart disease risk
The Diet–Cancer Link
• High-fat diets have been associated with an increase in
the risk of cancers of the colon and rectum, prostate,
and endometrium.
• The association between high-fat diets and breast
cancer appears to be much weaker. The Nurses’
Health Study followed more than 121,000 women for 14
years and found no evidence that higher total fat intake
was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
• High intake of red meat (beef, pork, lamb) and
processed meat (bacon, sausage, hotdogs, lunchmeat)
is associated with some types of colorectal cancer; longterm consumption of poultry and fish is associated with
reduced risk.
Benefits of Weight Loss
• Weight loss as
modest as 5 to 15
percent of total body
weight in a person
who is overweight or
obese reduces the
risk factors for some
particularly heart
• Weight loss can
result in lower blood
pressure, lower
blood sugar, and
cholesterol levels.