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Chapter 11
Diet and Health
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e
 Two types of diseases
 Infectious and chronic
 Nutrients and our body’s defenses
 Hoaxes
 Leading causes of death
 Chronic diseases
 Mixture of factors
The Ten Leading Causes of
Death in the United States
Nutrition and Immunity
 Well-nourished
immune system
 Provides
 Susceptible
 Malnutrition
The Concept of Risk Factors
 Risk factors
 Suspected contributors
 Show correlation with the disease
 Disease risk factors
 Genetic
 Environmental
 Behavioral
 Social
 Dietary contributions to disease
Risk Factors and Chronic
Interrelationships Among Chronic
Cardiovascular Diseases
 Disease of heart and blood vessels
 Symptoms of heart attack and stroke
 Minimizing risks
 Heart is one of the least regenerative
 Heart disease
 Men vs. women
U.S. Heart Disease Death Rates
 Hardening of the arteries
 Everyone has signs
 How advanced is the disease
 Plaque formation
 Damaging factors to vessel linings
 Inflammation
 Macrophages
 Mineralization
The Formation of Plaques in
 Plaque rupture
 Blood clots
 Abnormal blood
 Omega-3 fatty
 Blood pressure
Risk Factors for CVD
 Age, gender, and genetic inheritance
 Nonmodifiable
 High LDL and low HDL cholesterol
 Higher the LDL the greater the risk
 Most atherogenic lipoproteins
 Higher HDL reduces risk
 LDL oxidation
LDL, HDL, and Risk of Heart
Adults Standards for Blood Lipids, Body
Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Pressure
Nutrition and Hypertension
 One of most prevalent forms of CVD
 No symptoms you can feel
 Two numbers
 Systolic pressure
 Diastolic pressure
 Prehypertension
 Blood pressure checks at regular intervals
The Blood Pressure
Lifestyle Modifications to Reduce
Blood Pressure
Selected Herbs: Claims,
Evidence, and Risks
Selected Herbs: Claims,
Evidence, and Risks
Nutrition and Cancer
 Prevention of cancer
 Risk factors
 Lifestyle factors
 Environmental exposures
 Diet
 Dietary components
 Relation to cancer
Cancer Development
Which Diet Factors Affect Cancer
 Energy intake
 Reduced caloric intakes
 Cancer prevention only
 Obesity
 Depends on site of cancer & other factors
 Physical activity
 Alcohol
 Fat and fatty acids
Which Diet Factors Affect Cancer
 Red meats and processed meats
 Cooking
 Smoking
Fiber-rich foods
Folate and antioxidant vitamins
Calcium and vitamin D
Food phytochemicals
The DASH Diet: Preventive
 Emphasized foods
 Make only a few
dietary changes at
a time
 Start with fruits &