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American Population
-late 1700’s
less than 4 million people
• Young nation
• Expensive to come here
• Lower life expectancy
OVER 300 million
-what caused the growth?
Immigration: people coming from
other countries because of:
Job opportunities, better life,
higher now due to technological
advances in medicine.
-What is a citizen?
Native or naturalized member of a
state or nation who owes
allegiance to a government (is
entitled protection)
2 ways to become a citizen
1. born a citizen:
Born on U.S. soil/any 50 states or
territories (Guam)
U.S. base overseas
2. through naturalization•
Process where non-Americans
become Americans
They become “naturalized” as
Citizen By Birth
-Citizenship by Birth
-born anywhere in any part of the
United States
• D.C., American territories, Guam,
Puerto Rico, military bases
• -If your parents are citizens no
matter where you were born
• At least 1 parent
-possible to be a dual citizen at birth
EX- Born in Sweden to American
• As long as the countries don’t
conflict with each other
•**except: Children born
to foreign diplomats who
live here keep citizenship
of parents.
"I hereby declare, on oath, that I
absolutely and entirely renounce and
abjure all allegiance and fidelity to
any foreign prince, potentate, state,
or sovereignty of whom or which I
have heretofore been a subject or
citizen; that I will support and defend
the Constitution and laws of the
United States of America against all
enemies, foreign and domestic; that I
will bear true faith and allegiance to
the same; that I will bear arms on
behalf of the United States when
required by the law; that I will
perform noncombatant service in the
Armed Forces of the United States
when required by the law; that I will
perform work of national importance
under civilian direction when required
by the law; and that I take this
obligation freely without any mental
reservation or purpose of evasion; so
help me God."
Legal process to obtain citizenship
-5 requirements
1. file an intent form: called a
Declaration of Intent “saying” I
want to be a citizen
2. live in U.S. for 5 years: married
to citizens wait 3 years
3. be 18 years old: If you are
under 18 and your parents do it
then you’re in
4. take naturalization test: tested
on reading, writing, speaking
English, us history and CIVICS!
5. take citizenship oath: swearing
Legal Aliens
-Legal alien:
What is the difference?
Green Card aka Permanent
Resident Card• Legal alien=
• is a person’s proof of lawful
permanent residency in the United
• legal non-citizen
•A wallet-sized card showing that
• a foreigner who enters a country to the person is a lawful permanent
resident (immigrant) in the United
settle there
-has written permission to be in the •Has a right to live and work here
• Alien = non-citizen
• Visa / Green Card- Formal
permission for a non-citizen to be in • Nonimmigrant visas are for
people with permanent residence
a nation
outside the U.S. but who wish to
-can’t vote or hold public office but… be in the U.S. on a temporary basis
– for tourism, medical treatment,
-have same legal rights as citizens
business, temporary work or study.
VISA•A citizen of a foreign country, wishing to enter the U.S.,
generally must first obtain a visa, either a
•nonimmigrant visa for temporary stay
•immigrant visa for permanent residence.
• Visa applicants will need to apply overseas, at the U.S.
Embassy or Consulate, generally in their country of permanent
• The type of visa you must have is defined by immigration law,
and relates to the purpose of your travel.
• A visa allows a foreign citizen to travel to the United States
port-of entry, and request permission of the U.S. immigration
inspector to enter the U.S.
• Issuance of a visa does not guarantee entry to the United
States. The CBP Officer at the port-of-entry determines
whether you can be admitted and decides how long you can
stay for any particular visit.
•The vast majority work in lowskill, low-wage jobs.
•More than ½ work in
construction, manufacturing or
leisure and hospitality.
•By increasing the labor supply
between 1980 and 2000,
immigration reduced the average
annual earnings of U.S.-born men
by an estimated $1,700, or
roughly 4 percent.
• The reduction in earnings
occurs regardless of whether the
immigrants are legal or illegal,
permanent or temporary. It is
the presence of additional
workers that reduces wages, not
their legal status.
Illegal Aliens
-Illegal Aliens• Illegal non-citizen
• Not supposed to be here
-can not do anything legally in the
• can’t vote, hold office, work
• can be deported if found
-The process of being expelled
from a nation
-why would someone come here if
they would be an illegal alien???
• Job opportunities, better life,
money, family…