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Some examples from Connell’s
“The Most Dangerous Game”
• Some wounded thing– by evidence, a large
animal– had thrashed about in the
underbrush… A small glittering object not far
away caught Rainsford’s eye and he picked it
• Find this excerpt on page 3, about 2/3 down
the page.
Some examples from Connell’s
“The Most Dangerous Game”
• Some wounded thing– by evidence, a large
animal– had thrashed about in the
underbrush… A small glittering object not far
away caught Rainsford’s eye and he picked it
Some examples from Connell’s
“The Most Dangerous Game”
• Some wounded (adjective) thing– by
evidence, a large animal– had thrashed (verb)
about in the underbrush… A small glittering
(adjective) object not far away caught
Rainsford’s eye and he picked (verb) it up.
Participles and Participial Phrases
• A participle is a verbal used as an ADJECTIVE.
• Participles modify NOUNS or PRONOUNS only.
• A participle will answer the adjective questions
“Which one?” and “What kind?”
• Participles are either PRESENT or PAST --• Present participles end in –ing
• Past participles usually end in -ed, but some past
participles have irregular endings such as -en, -n, t. Even the word made can be a participle.
Participial Phrases
• A participial phrase is a verbal that includes its
modifiers or complements -- all working
together as an ADJECTIVE.
• A participial phrase can be anywhere in a
sentence and be combined with an adverb, a
prep phrase, or a complement.
• If an adverb precedes a participial phrase,
include it as part of the phrase:
Quickly raising his hand, Joe was called on first.
• A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing and used as a
NOUN. Examples:
Subject: Swimming is fun.
Direct Object: I love swimming.
Indirect Object: Joe’s competitive edge gave his
swimming a real boost.
Object of a Prep: Joe’s love for swimming is strong.
Predicate Nom: Joe’s favorite sport is swimming.
Appositive: Joe’s favorite sport, swimming, is easy.
What are complement gerunds?
• Direct Objects, Indirect Objects and Predicate
Nominatives = nouns that end in –ing
• Direct Objects answer whom? What? And
follow action verbs
• Indirect objects answer For whom? To whom?
For what? To what? And follow action verbs.
An indirect object comes before a direct
• Predicate nominatives follow linking verbs and
rename the subject before the verb.
Gerund or Participle? It’s easy!
• Remember: Gerunds are nouns. Participles
are adjectives.
• Gerunds end in –ing.
• Participles end in –ing, -ed, -en, -n, -t
• Nouns are things; adjectives describe things.
• Know what the verbal is doing in the
• Do not confuse the verb and the verbal.
Now, let’s finish the treasure hunt
• We’ll complete page 3 together. You will then
complete pages 4, 5, 6, and 7 with a partner.
• After completing the search, update your
treasure hunt sheet by adding participles and
gerunds with page numbers.
Gerund Phrases
• A gerund phrase includes its modifiers and
complements – all working together as one
Use a possessive noun or pronoun before a
gerund. It will be part of the gerund phrase.
Sue’s learning grammar makes her
The highlight of today is our learning grammar.
• Infinitives are verbals that usually begin with
the word to and another verb.
• Infinitives can be used as nouns, adjectives or
• Infinitives can never be prep phrases. An
infinitive is to + a verb form (to go, to see)
whereas a prep phrase is to + an object (noun
or pronoun): to school, to Utah, to the dance
Infinitive Phrases
• Like gerunds and participle phrases, an
infinitive phrase can be combined with
modifiers and complements – all working
together as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
We left home early to get to the movie on time.
My family hopes to leave for Utah tomorrow.
The book to read is Fahrenheit 451.
Finding and Using Infinitives
• Infinitives can come anywhere in a sentence.
• Infinitives act like nouns, adjectives or
• Sometimes the word to is omitted when the
infinitive follows verbs such as dare, feel, hear,
help, let, make, need, see and watch.
Example: No one dared go without permission
Identifying Infinitive Phrases
• Adjective infinitives will always follow a noun
or pronoun: The place to go is called Mezzo.
(Which place? What kind?)
• Noun infinitives can be Subjects, DOs, or PNs:
To watch a child walk for the first time is
exciting. I want to go to Europe every
summer. My job is to watch the swimmers.
• Adverb infinitives modify adjectives and other
adverbs. I left early to go home.
Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
• Participial phrases and infinitive phrases can
be used as modifiers and must be placed close
to the word they modify.
• Misplaced modifier: the verbal phrase must
be moved next to the word it modifies.
• Dangling modifier: DO NOT MOVE the verbal
phrase. The sentence lacks a word to be
modified. Add that word next to the verbal.
Fixing Misplaced and Dangling
Example of a misplaced modifier:
We saw a bear hiking along with our cameras.
Hiking along with our cameras, we saw a bear.
(Move the verbal and punctuate it correctly.)
Example of a dangling modifier:
To enter the contest, a form must be signed.
To enter the contest, you must sign a form.
(Do NOT move the verbal; add a missing word.)