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Transcript
Sensory Science Centre
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
AGE-RELATED SENSORY PERCEPTION AND
FOOD BEHAVIOUR
Dr Lisa Methven
[email protected]
1
Copyright University of Reading
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From Baby to Grandparent…
what should we …
(sensory scientist, product developer, marketeer, consumer)
…consider ??
• Changes in perception ?
• Changes in exposure / familiarity ?
• Changes in needs (physiological / psychological / social) ?
• Designing foods to meet the needs of an increasingly older
population ?
• Designing “healthier foods” to appeal to the sensory
preferences different age groups?
• Modifying choice behaviour of specific age groups through
encouraging exposure?
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Changes in Perception with Age
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As Older Person:
• Olfaction & Taste diminished
• Dentition and muscle strength influencing
texture acceptability
• Lots of experience or Set experiences ?
• Health influencing perception
As Adult:
• Increasing tolerance of the
trigeminal…”maturing” but
reducing sensitivity?
As Adolescent:
• Is “junk” diet influencing
perception ??
“High sweet of fatty diets
reducing sensitivity ?”
As Child:
• Teeth !...Exploring texture
• Exposure
• Neophobia
As Baby:
• Olfaction Complete & Familiarity
already influencing liking.
• Sensitive & dislike of Bitter & Sour
• Sensitive & like Sweet & Savoury
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How does taste change with age & health ?
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TASTE DETECTION THRESHOLDS:
Why They May Increase with Age
Morphological changes
- decrease in receptor
numbers
Functional changes
of gustatory cells
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What’s this literature evidence?
• Meta-analysis of 23
studies
Identification thresholds
higher for older adults in
17 out of 18 studies.
• Consensus was that
taste detection
thresholds increased
with age (p<0.001)
across all taste
modalities.
16 out of 25 studies
reported perception of
taste intensity at
supra-threshold levels
to be significantly lower
for older adults,
7
Methven, Allen, Withers & Gosney (2012) Ageing and Taste. Proceeding
LIMITLESS
of the Nutrition Society,
71 (4):POTENTIAL
556-65 | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
Chemosensory loss is connected
with Frailty not just Age
Orosensory decline correlates with dependency (poor health,
medication, cognitive dysfunction):
• N=559 France (65-99 yr)
• Independent living & Nursing Home
• Measured:
• Salt taste detection
• Olfaction : detection, characterisation & discrimination
• Results:
• Well preserved abilities : 43%
• Moderate Impairment : 21 %
• Clear trend between impairment & level of dependence
Sulmont-Rossé et al. (2015) Chem Senses, 40, 153-164.
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OUR EVIDENCE
• Taste Threshold data collected from
three groups :
• Younger healthy adults
• Older healthy adults
• Older hospital patients
• Participants presented with a series
of triads; and asked to identify the
strongest taste
• Four basic tastants assessed: Sweet
(sucrose), Salty (NaCl), Umami
(glutamate), Bitter (quinine)
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Taste Thresholds : Age & Health
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Taste Thresholds : A call to Act ?
Significant increase in all taste
thresholds between YV & OV and
between OV & OP (p<0.001 to p<0.05)
Mean 0.12% in
the region of salt
level of typical
meals
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In the region of
salt level of
typical meals
TASTE DETECTION THRESHOLDS
Group
n
Mean
Age(range)
Sweet
(sucrose)
Salt (NaCL)
Umami
(MSG)
Bitter
(quinine)
Hospital patients (50)
(42)
(51)
(28)
Healthy older
38 (35)
volunteers
84 (65-98)
16mM
(0.5%)
19.4 mM
(0.12%)
3.7 mM
(0.06%)
0.03 mM
(0.002%)
71 (62 – 87)
5.9 mM
(0.03%)
1.8 mM
(0.03%)
0.006mM
(0.0005%)
Healthy younger
volunteers
(25-35)
2.5mM
(0.01%)
0.5mM
(0.01%)
35
Significant increase in Salt, Umami & Bitter threshold between healthy older
volunteers and older patients (p<0.001 to p<0.05)
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WHAT ABOUT AROMA :
Ortho & Retronasal?
What are the impacts of ageing on odour perception?
• Diminished olfaction with age more common than taste decline
• Effects > 50% of adults 65-80 yrs; ca. 75% of adults > 80
Doty & Kamath (2014)
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OLFACTORY DETECTION
Thresholds with SNIFFIN’ Sticks
• SNIFFIN’ Sticks of butanol; 3 AFC
Younger group (20 – 40 yrs)
Average = 0.03 mg/L
14 x higher
Older group range (65+ yrs)
Average = 0.35 mg/L
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Supra-threshold Aroma Perception
• Caramel flavours in sweetened milk at supra-threshold
levels
• Both ortho-nasal (smell) and retro-nasal (flavour-in mouth)
perception were assessed to
determine…
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DISCRIMINATION THRESHOLDS FOR CARAM
Lots of Older
people need more
to notice a
difference
Lots of Younger
people noticed
small increases
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• Doty
Doty & Kamath (2014) Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 20
Doty & Kamath (2014) Applied Olfactory Cognition, 2,
213-232
Devanad (2015) Annals of Neurology, 78(3) 401-411
Köster et al (2014) Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-11
Kremer et al (2014) FQP, 38, 30-39
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WHAT ABOUT TEXTURE?
Generally accepted increase in preference for foods that are easier to
breakdown & swallow with age
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Texture Perception with Age
Dentition influences mouthfeel
perception
Muscular strength could also impact on the ability to
chew and move food around the mouth
25% OAs have swallowing difficulties
(dysphagia)
50% of institutionalised / hospitalised OAs
Declines in taste and flavour could
put more emphasis on texture attributes
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• Studies report decline of texture sensation with age:
• Kremer 2005: soup less creamy
• Kremer 2007 : waffles less elastic
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Thickness & Mouth-coating Perception
• Skimmed milk + starch thickener or Weightwatchers thick cream : 5 thickness
& 4 mouth-coating levels
• 2-AFC tests
Level 4
Standards
Level 3
• Staircase approach : Volunteer answers
dictated the concentration of the next
test to minimise consumption volumes
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FINDINGS
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Perceived Mouthdrying
• Milk-based Mouth drying
– Heat treated rennet whey compared
to skimmed milk
• Older volunteers found whey significantly more mouthdrying than
skimmed milk (p=0.03)
• Young volunteers found no significant difference
• Suggests mouth drying is more important and easier to detect to older
groups
Withers, Gosney & Methven(2013), JSS, 28(3) 230-237
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BUT SOME MOUTHFEEL SENSATIONS MAY
INCREASE WITH AGE…
• Thickness & Mouthcoating in Milk :
• No Differences between young (YV) & old (OV)
• Milk-based Mouth drying
 Heat treated rennet whey compared to skimmed
milk
 OV found whey significantly more mouthdrying than
skimmed milk (p=0.03)
 YV found no significant difference
 Older Adults detected mouthdrying more easily
Withers, Gosney & Methven(2013), JSS, 28(3) 230-237
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Sensory Perception with Ageing :
Key Findings
Taste perception declines with ageing, with sweetness
most preserved
Odour and flavour thresholds are generally affected by ageing,
although the extent is stimulus specific
Thickness and mouth coating perception is not
influenced by ageing
Older people can detect milk-based mouth drying to a greater
extent than younger people
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Changes in Exposure & Familiarity with Age
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Food Familiarity
• Where Children & Older Adults converge ?
• Both tend to have clear preference for familiar foods
• With older adults, it’s independent of sensory performance
• Poor olfaction in older adults can increase willingness to try novel foods
(Pelchat, 2000)
• But, decreased sensory acuity & increased dependency, pickiness &
rejection can increase (Maitre, 2014)
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Food Memory
• Food memory can triggered by sensory perception, but also by eating
situation or recognition of the dish (Koster & Mojet, 2015)
• Disruption caused if perceived flavour deviates from memory of it
• Loss of olfactory sensitivity could benefit this !
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Add in something in repeatd exposure & kids
And thehn on adults – fllav flavour John
My older adults work
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UMAMI TASTE PREVIOUSLY FOUND TO CONDITION LI
• Subjects (n=69) rated liking of novel soups
• 9 exposures to one novel soup; either consuming with MSG, without
MSG, or just tasting with MSG
Novel Flavours :
(Chickpea & dried
flower base or Spinach
& dried fungus)
Prescott, 2004. Appetite, 42, 143-150
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DOES UMAMI CONDITION WANTING ?
• We studied older adults (n=40; age 65=88)
• Used “novel” flavoured potato soups
• Lemongrass
• Cumin
• Ran a repeat exposure liking & consumption study
Dermiki, M., Prescott, J., Sargent, L. J., Willway, J., Gosney, M. A. and
Methven, L. (2015) Novel flavours paired with glutamate condition
increased intake in older adults in the absence of changes in liking.
Appetite, 90. pp. 108-113.
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DOES UMAMI CONDITION WANTING ?
Familiarity increased…
…but liking did not!
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DOES UMAMI CONDITION WANTING ?
However consumption of soups that had been paired with
MSG increased !
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Changes in Needs (Physiological, Psychological, S
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DEVELOPING FOODS FOR OLDER PEO
TASTE ENHANCEMENT OF FOOD FOR OLDER HOSPIT
PATIENTS USING NATURAL INGREDIENTS
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TASTE ENHANCEMENT OF FOOD FO
OLDER HOSPITAL PATIENTS
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Enhancement of umami taste of food for
older people in order to increase consumption
• Schiffman et al. : Flavour and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) led to
increased food consumption among older people, increased salivary flow,
improved immunity and muscle strength
• Bellisle et al. (1998): older people preferred food with MSG
• Essed et.al. (2007): no effect of 16 week flavour /and or MSG addition to
animal protein on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home
elderly & Essed et.al. (2009): no effect on intake and liking of soup
enhanced with MSG
• Toyama et al. (2008): consumption of food with MSG improved routine
function and quality of life of older patients
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Enhancement of Other Tastes & Flavour
TASTE:
• De Jong et al. (1996): OP preferred sweeter orange drinks
• Drewnowski et al. (1996): OP preferred LOWER salt soup
• Mojet et al. (2004): salt, umami, bitter & sour enhancement NO effect
FLAVOUR:
• De Graaf et al. (1996): OP preferred higher flavour levels (4 foods)
• Kremer et al. (2007): vanilla flavour  NO effect in waffles
• Koskinen et al. (2003): flavour  NO effect in yoghurt-product
• Kremer et al. (2014): Celery flavour improved pref for mashed potato
• Pouyet et al. (2015)…fqp,44, 119-129
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OUR APPROACH…
AIM
• Improve the palatability of savoury foods for older
hospital patients in order to stimulate appetite and
increase consumption.
Hypothesis
• Taste enhancement will increase liking and
consumption.
• Taste sensitivity affects their liking and
consumption.
Natural
ingredients
Approach
• Enhancement of savoury
characteristics using naturally
occurring tastants in hospital food to
levels preferred by older people
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OUR APPROACH…
Use of natural ingredients rich in umami taste compounds
 Maximum levels of “UMAMI” ingredients in a meat dish
 Keep Sodium levels constant
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THE UMAMI TASTE
• Characteristic taste of Glutamate (MSG) and 5’-nucleotides
• Multiple Receptors (Chaudhari, 2009, Am J Clin Nutr, 90, 1S-5S)
• Specific L- glutamate receptors on the tongue, and in stomach
• mGluR1
• mGluR4
• Less specific heterodimer T1R1 + T1R3
• responds to amino acids AND ribonucleotides
• Synergy between the umami amino acids & ribonucleotides
• Enhancement of savoury volatile flavours : greater activation shown
in cortex taste-olfactory convergence regions of the brain by fMRI
(McCabe & Rolls, 2007, E J Neuroscience, 25, 1855-1864)
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UMAMI AND OLDER PEOPLE
• Dry mouth due to diminished salivation
• Umami stimulation increases salivary flow (Hodson and Linden, 2006; Schiffman et
al.)
• Reduced appetite due to diminished sensory ability
• Umami sensitivity strongest correlation with human appetite (Shi et al,
2004)
• Preference for umami is affected by nutritional status (Murphy, 1987)
• Gastric dysfunction
• Stimulating gastric function through gastric L-glutamate receptors
(Toyoma et al, 2008)
• Chronic atrophic gastritis
• MSG supplementation of meals was reported to increase basal and
maximal acid output to normal amounts and improved appetite
(Kochet et al)
• Delayed gastric emptying
• MSG in combination with protein rich foods increased gastric
emptying rate (Zai et al, 2009)
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UMAMI AMINO ACIDS & RIBONUCLEOTIDES
Glutamic acid
Inosine
monophosphate
Aspartic acid
Adenosine
monophosphate
Guanosine
monophosphate
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Methodology
Sensory profiling
Trained sensory
panel
Recipe
development
chemical analysis
(n=10, mean age 46 )
Consumer study 1
Younger (n=31, age 2132, mean 25)
Older (n=32, age 62-83,
mean 73)
Hospital study
Older hospital patients
Consumer study 2
Older
(n=35, age 62-87, mean 71)
(n=31, age 65-92, mean 84)
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OPTIMISATION OF RECIPE
NHS Basic minced meat
 Maximum possible levels of ingredients
recipe
Minced meat (42%)
 Sodium levels kept constant for all recipes (0.2%)
+
Sunflower oil (1%)
+
Onion puree(8.6%)
Additional Ingredients :
+
Garlic puree (0.7%)
MSG
+
Cornflour (1.7%)
Yeast extracts (maxarome, gistex)
+
Water (beef stock) (43%)
Mycoscent (mycoprotein)
+
Tomato puree (30%TS)
Soy sauce (Kikkoman Low Salt) (SS)
(2.8%)
+
Tomato puree
Salt (0.2)
Instructions
Honzokuri miso paste (Low Salt)
1. Heat oil
2. Brown beef
Shiitake (70oC extract)
3. Cook onion
Concentrated Tomato Extract
4. Add garlic tomato puree
5. Add salt
6. Add beef stock and
45
simmer
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7. Add cornflour
HOSPITAL STUDY: METHODS
• Which samples? Control vs Enhanced cottage pies
• Enhanced pie: Soy Sauce and Concentrated Tomato Extract (SS+CTE)
• Enhanced gravy : soy sauce (SS)
• Where? Elderly Care Wards in one NHS Trust Fund
• Volunteers? 31 older (age>65) patients (11 Male and 20 Female)
• Protocol
•
•
•
•
Consent
Screening
Liking and preference test on minced meat
Measurement of consumption of the two cottage pies during lunch time
46
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HOSPITAL STUDY: RESULTS
Control
Liking minced meat
(9-point)
Preference minced meat
(number of people )
Consumption (g)
Enhanced significance
6.1
6.7
p=0.045
7
24
p=0.02
117.5
137.1
n.s.
 There was a trend for consumption to be affected by liking scores (p=0.125)
 There was a trend for total consumption to be higher where depression scores
(HADS) were lower (p=0.06)
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CHALLENGES/LIMITATIONS
• Consenting & bias to the “least frail”
• Two plates confusing / difficult to handle / overwhelming
• Lunch time too early, volunteers were not hungry
• Some people stated that preferred one sample but decided to eat
more of the other one ?!
• Older people score liking high to please the researcher
• Repeat exposure may affect consumption of enhanced meals – not
taken into account here
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Conclusions
• Thresholds increase with age & illness/medication. Salt thresholds
increased more than glutamate.
→ Logical approach to enhance umami taste of food for older people
• Natural ingredients successfully used to enhance the taste of food
• Majority of patients preferred enhanced minced meat
• No significant differences in consumption of the different samples
• Consumption can be affected by mood
• More factors need to be taken into account apart from taste in order
to increase consumption for older hospital patients
49
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SENSORY AND CONSUMER RESULTS :
Sensory analysis
Consumer Liking by OV
OV
Sample
SS &
mycoscent
SS &
Shiitake
SS & CTE
CTE
Control
Min Max
Mean
4
9
6.9a
3
9
6.9 a
4
3
3
9
9
9
7.0 a
6.8 a
6.8 a
No discrimination : tendency to
give high scores to please
researcher !!
SS+CTE most positive comments
Dermiki et al (2013) JSFA, 93(13): 3312-3321
50
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Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
Hospital Study: Methods
Samples:
Location:
Control vs Enhanced cottage pies
Enhanced pie: Soy Sauce and Concentrated Tomato
Extract Enhanced gravy : Soy Sauce
Volunteers:
31 Older Patients (aged 65+)
11 male, 20 female
Elderly Care Wards in RBH NHS
Trust
Protocol:
Consent , Screening
Liking and preference test on
minced meat
Measurement of consumption
of the two cottage pies
© University of
Reading 2008
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| LIMITLESS
OPPORTUNITIES |www.reading.ac.uk
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HOSPITAL STUDY: RESULTS
Preference minced meat
(number of people)
Consumption (g)
Control
Enhanced
significance
6
24
p=0.001
119
137
n.s.
 Enhanced significantly preferred
 A trend but no sig. difference in consumption
Dermiki et al. (2013) Nutrition and Aging, 2,69-75
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Texture Enhancement
• Abstract
• Texture-modified meals are provided to people with chewing and swallowing
difficulties, such as those with dysphagia. Foods may be pureed, chopped,
mashed, minced or made soft to reduce the likelihood of choking. The texture
modification process can deplete the nutrient density of these diets,
inadvertently increasing potential for malnutrition. At its core, patients with
dysphagia require food that is moist and cohesive to promote safe and
efficient swallowing. This chapter details the eating hazards and risks of
dysphagia patients along with their needs from a texture-modified diet. It
outlines the specific criteria of texture-modified food, addressing issues
relating to ‘institutional food’. The chapter concludes with descriptions of
texture-modified food classifications and the variations in this terminology
seen on an international scale.
Rothenberg & Wendin (2015) Sensory Analysis, Consumer Requirements and
Preferences, 2, 163-185.
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So, Is Enhancement effective?
• Although difficult to demonstrate increased intake, we can demonstrate
increases liking ….so Yes
• Recent Reviews conflict to some extent:
Song & Bredie (2016):
• “Flavor and texture modifications usually enhance food liking of most
dependent elderly.”
• “Multisensory compensatory strategies are highly advised in future
study and practice.”
Doets & Kremer (2016):
• “Most flavour enhancement/enrichment strategies do not increase
liking in independent living seniors”
• Concluded a need for holistic interventions
• Combined visual / textural modifications with flavour enhancement /
enrichment did increase liking (Kremer, 2014)
Song, Giacalone, Johansen, Frøst, Bredie (2016). Trends in Food Sci & Tech, 53, 49-59
Doets & Kremer (2016) FQP, 48, 316-332
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Most studies show an
increase in Liking / Pref /
Acceptance.
BUT only for dependent
elderly
55
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Why does flavour enrichment / enhancement
not often work in independent older adults ?
• The MISFIT Theory (Koster et al., 2014): odour / flavour only leads to
spontaneous perception if it doesn’t fit expectations
• Enhancement may cause the misfit – or at least not be noticed
• Neural pathways of perception & liking are independent (Rolls, 2015)
• The extent of impairment may not be sufficient to warrant flavour
modification
56
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Design of Texture Modified Foods
• Texture needs to:
• improve safety and ease of swallowing
• reduce risks of choking and aspiration
Hall & Wendin (2008) :
• Meat & Carrot TMF varying particle size, fat, starch, egg.
• Resulted in varied coarseness, juiciness, softness, creaminess
• Conclusion : Firmness important for ease of swallow; Final TMF needs to
Look & Taste Good
Currently Investigating protein fortification of TMF : effects on appetite as
well as acceptability.
Hall & Wendin (2008) : Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 52(S1) 25-28.
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Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
Malnutrition in older patients:
re-designing the food and nutrition service
through a multidisciplinary and participative
process
Lisa left this first slide in just so I don’t lose the formatting
!
© University of
Reading 2008
LIMITLESS POTENTIAL
| LIMITLESS
OPPORTUNITIES |www.reading.ac.uk
LIMITLESS IMPACT
Re-thinking foods for older
people in hospital
Lisa Methven
Food Scientist
University of Reading
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Hospital food in the UK
•
•
•
•
the preparation: in-house or bought in
the plating: central kitchen, at ward, or at manufacturer
cooking or regeneration: trolleys or microwaves
the timing: generally 3 time points per day
overall points raised:
• some textural issues (drying & condensation)
• all systems have good & bad points
• patients rate their liking of meals high (>7/10), but
their hunger low
• measured waste at main meals ca. 40 % (of patients
well enough to consent to study)
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Hospital food today
bigger issues raised :
• portion sizes too large
• choice not always appropriate
• choosing and receiving too separated
• do not want to eat & cannot eat enough
• the importance of texture modified foods
….smaller portions of standard meals
will not supply sufficient nutrients
….foods provided “between” meals are
limited
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DEVELOPING FOODS TARGETED AT
NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF OLDER PEOPLE
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RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR OLDER ADULTS (24H)
Micronutrient
Energy (kcal)
Protein (g)
Fat (g)
Saturated fat(g)
Potassium (mg)
Magnesium (mg)
Iron (mg)
Zinc (mg)
Vit D ( µg)
Riboflavin (B2) (mg)
Vit B6 (mg)
Folate (B9) (µg)
Vit C (mg)
Government daily
guidelines a
1955
50
<74.5
<23.5
> 3500
> 300
>9
> 9.5
> 10
> 1.3
nr (1.3) c
> 200
nr (40) c
mappmal
recommendation per
PORTION minimeal b
>300
8
nr
Current Hospital
Typical
<4
day :
up to 1175
Maximum
Supplied 2100 kcal
up to 150
If 60 % consumed:
3 - 4.5
Maximum
1260 kcal
3.2 -Intake
4.8
3.3 - 5
0.4 - 0.6
0.43 - 0.65
67-100
13.3 – 20
References :
aFSA (2006) guidelines for nutrients for food provided to older people in residential care
bMicronutrients : range of 1/3rd to 1/2 of daily RNI per supplemented minimeal.
bMacronutrients : 1/6th of DRV per minimeal.
cnr = no recommendation specified; but highlighted as low intake and/or deficient in older adults in two studies:
(Bates et al 1999, Br J Nutr 82(1), 7-15; Russell
& Suter POTENTIAL
1993, Am J Clin Nutr
58(1), 4-14)
LIMITLESS
| LIMITLESS
OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
THE MICRONUTRIENT OPTIONS : TWO
1
fortification of nutrients
required by older people at up to
1/3rd RNI (daily
recommendation) into minimeal portions
2 fortification of nutrients to match
nutritional supplements
beverages (ONS) typically given
to undernourished older adults
Government
Guidelines
Iron, potassium, magnesium,
zinc and 5 vitamins (folic acid,
B2, B6, C and D)
11 minerals & 13 vitamins
LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
ICE CREAM: AN EXAMPLE OF AN “ONS”
key benefits
• alternative oral nutritional supplement (ONS)
• higher in calories than standard ice cream
• vitamin, mineral and protein enriched
• “hard” rather than ”soft” ice cream
• aiming for not too fast to melt!!
LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
ICE CREAM: AN “ONS” ALTERNATIVE
why did we developed this?
• ice cream often preferred to ONS
beverage
• standard IC too low in calories to
match an ONS
• mineral and vitamins in
ice cream have less taste
impact due to lower
temperature
• older volunteers liked
enhanced formulation as
much as standard
standard
mappmal IC
nutritional information
IC
(100ml)
(100ml)
Energy (kcal)
128
215
Protein (g)
3
5
Carbohydrates (g)
14
14
Fat (g)
7
15
No
Yes
(as for ONS
beverage)
Addition of Minerals /
Vitamins
LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
COOKIES: MORE FROM A TRADITIONAL SNACK
key benefits
•
•
•
•
•
•
alternative oral nutritional supplement (ONS)
high in calories and adequate protein
vitamin, mineral and protein enriched
not too hard to bite
not to leave too many dry particles in mouth
(avoid choking)
portion size : 40 g (2 biscuits)
LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
COOKIES: MORE FROM A TRADITIONAL SNACK
We had two micronutrient options:
1.meeting known needs: iron, potassium, magnesium, zinc and 5 vitamins
2.matching an ONS beverage: 11 minerals, 13 vitamins
3.no difference in liking between the control and the two vitamin / mineral
enriched options (older volunteers)
standard digestive biscuit
(100g)
mappmal cookie (100g)
470
517
Protein (g)
7
12
Fat (g)
22
32
No
Yes
nutritional information
Energy (kcal)
Addition of Minerals /
Vitamins
LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
SO, SHOULD WE RECRUIT OLDER AS
AS YOUNGER SENSORY PANELS?
Raija-Liisa Heiniö runs a trained seniors
panel at VTT
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LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 Our Volunteers
 Dr Maria Dermiki
 Dr Orla Kennedy
 Prof Margot Gosney
 Project Students
 RBH NHS Trust Catering
 RBH NHS Clinical
 MMR Sensory panel
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LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
Thank you for listening
Any questions are welcome
LIMITLESS
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LIMITLESS POTENTIAL | LIMITLESS OPPORTUNITIES | LIMITLESS IMPACT
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
FOOD DESIGN TO MEET THE
NEEDS OF THE INCREASING
OLDER POPULATION :
SO HOW DOES AGEING INFLUENCE OUR
SENSORY PERCEPTION?
Dr Lisa Methven
[email protected]
3 July 2014
© University of
Reading 2008
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| LIMITLESS
OPPORTUNITIES |www.reading.ac.uk
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