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Transcript
Aim: Explain the causes of World War I.
Take out Roosevelt Paragraph
• T.R. upset with Taft’s policies
• T.R. runs for president
• Ran for Progressive political party
• Bull Moose Party
• Split for Republicans give Wilson the edge
Aim: How did Germany plan to fight WWI and
how was the U.S. brought into WWI?
Do Now: What are the 5 causes of World War
I?
• Causes of WWI
• Militarism – belief that a nation needs a large
military
forced countries build up armies
• Alliances – Europe is split in two by countries allying
with another. Attack on one forced allies into war
• Nationalism – pride and loyalty for country. Prove
their nation is strongest and best
• Imperialism – European powers compete for colonies
• Assassination – murder of the prince of AustriaHungary – Franz Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip –
6/28/1914
•
•
•
•
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
Killed by Serbian terrorist in Bosnia
Austria-Hungary declare war on Serbia
Russia to Serbia’s aid
• Triple Alliance – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire,
Bulgaria
• Triple Entente – Serbia, Russia, Great Britain, France
• German plan for two front war (east and west)
• Rapid invasion of France
• Attack through neutral Belgium
• After capture France, full attack on Russia
• Britain joins war to protect neutral Belgium
• (really to maintain power)
•
•
•
•
Both sides thought would be quick war
Germans attack France – 40 miles from Paris
First Battle of the Marne – stop German advance
Trench warfare – troops dig in at bottom of trenches
• Tanks – British invention – travel over rugged terrain
• Machine gun – 600 bullets a minute
• Poison gas – burned and blinded soldiers
• Suffocation
• Airplanes
• Submarines with torpedoes – U-boats – Germans
Aim: How was the U.S. brought into World War I?
Do Now: List the new weapons that will cause a
massive amount of death in WWI, without looking
at notes.
• 1914 – Pres. Woodrow Wilson
• Neutrality – refusing to take sides
• Stay out of European affairs
• GB or Germany?
• Unrestricted submarine warfare – U-boats
(submarine) sink any ship without warning
• 1915 – Lusitania sunk by German submarine
• 128 Americans killed
• U.S. demands halt to sub. Warfare - agreed
• 1916 – Wilson re-elected
Yes
• Germany attacks
neutral ships
• Many Americans
favor GB and France
• U.S. trade with GB is
important
No
• U.S. has tradition of
neutrality
• Some Americans
favor Central Powers
• What if we lose?
• Food shortages and inflation lead to riots
• March 1917 – Bolsheviks – Communists take control
• Tsar Nicholas II removed
• Vladimir Lenin – leader
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany
• Russia withdraws from war
• Advantage tipping to Germany
• 1917 – Germany resumes sub. Warfare
• Zimmermann telegram – Germans ask for Mexican
help
• Mexico would receive lands lost in Mexican War
• Brings U.S. into the war
• Wilson – “make the world safe for democracy.”
Aim: How did the U.S. take measures to mobilize
the country for wartime?
Do Now: What were the causes that led the US to
join World War I?
•
•
•
•
Less than 200,000 soldiers
Draft – choosing people for forced military service
Shipped to France
American Expeditionary Force
• Commander John Pershing
• War bonds – low-interest loans by civilians to the
government to be repaid in later years
• War cost US $35.5 billion
• War Industries Board – managed buying and
distributing war materials
• Support war through propaganda – opinions
expressed for the purpose of influencing others
JOIN THE MILITARY
• Labor shortage
•Factories in overdrive
for war
•Men off to war
• Great Migration –
African Americans
leave South for jobs
in North
• Sedition Act (1918) prohibited people from saying or
publishing anything disrespectful to the government of
the United States.
• Schenck participated in many antiwar activities in
violation of the Espionage Act, including the mailing of
about 15,000 leaflets urging draftees and soldiers to
resist the draft. He was arrested and charged with
“causing and attempting to cause insubordination in the
military and naval forces of the United States” and
with disturbing the draft. He was arrested, tried,
convicted, and sentenced to prison for violating the
Espionage Act of 1917, and he appealed his case to
the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court agreed with
the decision of Schenck being sent to prison.
• Agree or Disagree? Why?
• Espionage and
Sedition Acts – 1917
• Heavy fines and prison
terms for antiwar
activities
• Hundreds put in prison
• Schenck v. United
States
• Free speech could be
limited in wartime
Aim: How did Treaty of Versailles
end the war?
•
•
•
•
German offensive – 50 miles within Paris
Full deployment by May 1918
Americans, “doughboys,” win Battle of Cantigny
Held their ground
• Chateau-Thierry
• Belleau Wood
• Fresh US troops boosted the Morale of the French and
British
• Second Battle of the
Marne – turning point
• Germans forced back
from Paris
• Battle of Argonne Forest
• Allied offensive – final
battle
• Armistice – agreement
to stop fighting
•
•
•
•
Wilson’s plan for peace
War to end all wars
Restrictions for all countries to prevent future war
League of Nations – association of nations to
peacefully settle disputes
• Big Four
• GB
• France
• US
• Italy
• Germany accept full blame for war
• Pay $33 billion in reparations – money a defeated
nation pays for destruction it caused
• A-H and Ottoman Empires divided into independent
nations
• War Guilt Clause – Germany embarrassed –
take full blame for war
• Reparations cause German economy to crumble
• Germans hate Allies
• Charismatic leader of Hitler will use that hatred
• Propaganda
• Build up army
• Republicans against League
• Wilson would not budge
• US does not accept treaty and doesn’t join the
League
• Treaty would take away Congress’ right to declare
war