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Chapter 19 Review Mr. Klein Medieval Europe Europe is one huge peninsula surrounded by other smaller peninsulas. Most land lies 300 miles from the sea. Large navigable rivers throughout the continent wide and deep enough for ships to use. All of this provides a great environment for trade. Europe also has mountain ranges, Pyrenees and Alps, that divide the southern peninsulas from the rest of the continent. The rivers and mountains helped to keep one people from ever conquering all of Europe and encouraged the growth of unique, independent territories and people. Franks Franks were a Germanic group that settled in France and Western Germany. In 481, Clovis became king of the Franks and became the first Germanic ruler to accept Catholic Christianity. Nearly all the Franks followed his lead. In 714 Charles “the hammer” Martel became mayor of the palace and made a deal with the pope to spread Christianity. In 732 Martel defeated the Muslims at the battle of Tours stopping the advance of Islam in Europe ensuring that Christianity would be the dominant religion of Europe. Charlemagne In 768 Charles became king of the Franks and nearly doubled the size of his kingdom. By 800 he controlled most of Western Europe and was called Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, because of his many conquests. On Christmas day Charlemagne was crowned emperor by the pope. Charlemagne broke the territories up and they were ruled by counts to help him govern. Charlemagne was illiterate and wanted his people to be educated, learn to write and advance learning. Invaders Muslims conquer most of Spain and raid France and Italy from North Africa. Magyars invade France and Italy from Hungary and Vikings invade from Scandinavia. Vikings, or Norsemen, lived in villages along fjords throughout Scandinavia. Vikings had little farmland so they depended on the sea. Ships of traders and raiders moved all over Europe. The longboat made it all possible because it was good on the open ocean and in a river. Vikings created civilizations in Russia, Ukraine, France and England. Also expanded across the Atlantic. Church and its Influence Monks moved throughout Europe as missionaries setting up Monasteries to spread Christianity across the continent. By 1050 most Western Europeans were Catholic Christians. Monks and monasteries supplied schools and hospitals. They taught carpentry, weaving and helped make developments in farming. Copied Christian, Roman and Greek literary works and made illuminations. Monk men lived in a community headed by an abbot and women in convents headed by abbesses. As monasteries grew wealthy they came into conflict with rulers as their political influence increased. Feudalism With invasions people looked to nobles for protection. Nobles governed a region in return for services. Knights fight in the army and protect the land. Peasants farm the land. This new political and social order is known as feudalism. Kingdoms were divided into hundreds of feudal territories. Feudalism based on loyalty and duty between nobles. Lords have high ranking authority and is protected by vassals. Vassal swears an oath to serve the lord in a public ceremony. Vassals ruled fief and were often knights. Knights and Peasants Knights lived by a code of Chivalry. Many of todays ideas of manners come from chivalry. Knights trained by fighting with each other in tournaments. Knights were often at war and away from their castles. Castles were the center of an estate run by a lord. Vast number of people were peasants working on the manner. Freemen paid the noble to work the land. Most were serfs. Serfs were tied to the land, could not own property or move Nobles couldn’t sell serfs and had to protect them. Peasants worked long hours, year round. Life centered around the church and village green. Farming Improvements One major improvement was a heavy wheeled plow with an iron blade. Plow made deeper cuts in the soil and meant less time in the fields for peasants. Horse collar was also important because a horse could then pull the plow and moves faster then oxen Harnessing water and wind power for mills to grind grain. Crop rotation was started to keep fields fertile. These improvements grew more food so Europe's population grew. Towns and Cities Feudalism made Europe safer and more stable. Europe’s trade increased and towns grew larger and wealthy from trade. Large trading cities grew up along rivers and the sea. As cities grew so did the middle class that eventually demanded their rights from nobles. Craftspeople organized guilds that controlled business and trade in towns. Important leaders - England William the Conqueror – duke of Normandy claims to be the rightful king of England. Invades and defeats English king Harold at battle of Hastings. Divided up Anglo-Saxon land to his Norman knights. Over time Norman and Anglo-Saxon culture merge into English culture. Henry II – started a court and circuit judges bring king’s law to all of England. Used jury trials. Magna Carta – King John forced by nobles to sign “great charter” limiting king’s power – guaranteeing some rights including a jury trial and limiting government power. Increased authority to Parliament. Crusades In 1071 Muslim Turks had conquered most of the Byzantine empire and they asked Christian Europe for help. The pope agreed and asked Christians to go on a holy war against the Muslim Turks and free the Holy land. Thousands of Europeans invaded and conquered some territory in several regions including Jerusalem. Muslims defeat second and third crusade under the leadership of Saladin and win back all of the territory from the Europeans. Crusades exposed Europeans to new knowledge, weakened feudalism and caused a lot of bitterness between Christian Western Europe and the Islamic world. Culture The arch and use of flying buttresses created the Gothic style of architecture which led to vast cathedrals throughout Europe Universities begin to open around Europe in the Middle Ages. Increasing access to education spreading new ideas. A new way of thinking called scholasticism tried to combine faith and reason. Thomas Aquinas, an Italian Dominican friar, became scholasticism’s greatest thinker. Tried to find agreement between Aristotle’s teachings and Christian teachings. Wrote on religion and government including the idea that people have certain basic rights. Religion Catholic church becomes rich and powerful and some are concerned about its direction. Cistercian monks were unhappy with the wealthy monasteries and wanted to live a simpler life. They worshipped, prayed and farmed the land. Friars left the monasteries and took Christianity to the people. Two orders of friars were Franciscans and Dominicans. They lived a life of poverty and defending the teachings of the church. Church affected nearly every part of people’s lives. People attend mass, and take part in sacraments. To deal with heresy the church set up a court called the Inquisition. Anti-Semitism is common throughout the middle ages. Plague Plague originates in Asia and is spread by Mongol trade routes from Asia to the Middle East and to Europe. Plague originates with bacteria in fleas, fleas are carried by rats and fleas infect humans. Nearly half of the people in China and Europe die from plague. Some blame God’s punishment and others blame the Jews. Plague destroys the economy and weakens feudalism. Makes people start to think differently about the church. Conflict - Religious and Military The Great Schism divides the church with multiple people claiming to be pope at once. Reformers and kings questions popes authority. Hundred Years’ War fought between England and France. English king claims French crown and invades France. Early victories for English at Crecy and Agincourt using the longbow. A 17 year old French peasant girl named Joan helps the French prince Charles gain back land from the English and Charles is crowned king. Joan is later charged with heresy and executed. English nobles bitter about defeat fight a civil war called the War of the Roses and the Tudors claim victory with Henry VII being crowned king. Muslims are driven out of Spain and Inquisition pushes Jews out of Spain as well.