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Chapter 19 Review
Mr. Klein
Medieval Europe
Europe is one huge peninsula surrounded by other smaller
peninsulas. Most land lies 300 miles from the sea.
Large navigable rivers throughout the continent wide and deep
enough for ships to use. All of this provides a great environment for
Europe also has mountain ranges, Pyrenees and Alps, that divide
the southern peninsulas from the rest of the continent.
The rivers and mountains helped to keep one people from ever
conquering all of Europe and encouraged the growth of unique,
independent territories and people.
Franks were a Germanic group that settled in France and
Western Germany.
In 481, Clovis became king of the Franks and became the first
Germanic ruler to accept Catholic Christianity. Nearly all the
Franks followed his lead.
In 714 Charles “the hammer” Martel became mayor of the
palace and made a deal with the pope to spread Christianity.
In 732 Martel defeated the Muslims at the battle of Tours
stopping the advance of Islam in Europe ensuring that
Christianity would be the dominant religion of Europe.
In 768 Charles became king of the Franks and nearly
doubled the size of his kingdom.
By 800 he controlled most of Western Europe and was
called Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, because of his
many conquests.
On Christmas day Charlemagne was crowned emperor by
the pope.
Charlemagne broke the territories up and they were ruled
by counts to help him govern.
Charlemagne was illiterate and wanted his people to be
educated, learn to write and advance learning.
Muslims conquer most of Spain and raid France and Italy from
North Africa.
Magyars invade France and Italy from Hungary and Vikings
invade from Scandinavia.
Vikings, or Norsemen, lived in villages along fjords throughout
Vikings had little farmland so they depended on the sea.
Ships of traders and raiders moved all over Europe.
The longboat made it all possible because it was good on the
open ocean and in a river.
Vikings created civilizations in Russia, Ukraine, France and
England. Also expanded across the Atlantic.
Church and its Influence
Monks moved throughout Europe as missionaries setting up
Monasteries to spread Christianity across the continent.
By 1050 most Western Europeans were Catholic Christians.
Monks and monasteries supplied schools and hospitals. They
taught carpentry, weaving and helped make developments in
Copied Christian, Roman and Greek literary works and made
Monk men lived in a community headed by an abbot and
women in convents headed by abbesses.
As monasteries grew wealthy they came into conflict with rulers
as their political influence increased.
With invasions people looked to nobles for protection. Nobles
governed a region in return for services.
Knights fight in the army and protect the land.
Peasants farm the land.
This new political and social order is known as feudalism.
Kingdoms were divided into hundreds of feudal territories.
Feudalism based on loyalty and duty between nobles. Lords
have high ranking authority and is protected by vassals.
Vassal swears an oath to serve the lord in a public ceremony.
Vassals ruled fief and were often knights.
Knights and Peasants
Knights lived by a code of Chivalry. Many of todays ideas of
manners come from chivalry.
Knights trained by fighting with each other in tournaments.
Knights were often at war and away from their castles.
Castles were the center of an estate run by a lord.
Vast number of people were peasants working on the manner.
Freemen paid the noble to work the land. Most were serfs.
Serfs were tied to the land, could not own property or move
Nobles couldn’t sell serfs and had to protect them.
Peasants worked long hours, year round. Life centered around
the church and village green.
Farming Improvements
One major improvement was a heavy wheeled plow
with an iron blade. Plow made deeper cuts in the
soil and meant less time in the fields for peasants.
Horse collar was also important because a horse
could then pull the plow and moves faster then oxen
Harnessing water and wind power for mills to grind
Crop rotation was started to keep fields fertile.
These improvements grew more food so Europe's
population grew.
Towns and Cities
Feudalism made Europe safer and more stable.
Europe’s trade increased and towns grew larger and
wealthy from trade.
Large trading cities grew up along rivers and the sea.
As cities grew so did the middle class that eventually
demanded their rights from nobles.
Craftspeople organized guilds that controlled
business and trade in towns.
Important leaders - England
William the Conqueror – duke of Normandy claims to be the
rightful king of England. Invades and defeats English king
Harold at battle of Hastings.
Divided up Anglo-Saxon land to his Norman knights. Over
time Norman and Anglo-Saxon culture merge into English
Henry II – started a court and circuit judges bring king’s law to
all of England. Used jury trials.
Magna Carta – King John forced by nobles to sign “great
charter” limiting king’s power – guaranteeing some rights
including a jury trial and limiting government power.
Increased authority to Parliament.
In 1071 Muslim Turks had conquered most of the Byzantine
empire and they asked Christian Europe for help.
The pope agreed and asked Christians to go on a holy war
against the Muslim Turks and free the Holy land.
Thousands of Europeans invaded and conquered some
territory in several regions including Jerusalem.
Muslims defeat second and third crusade under the leadership
of Saladin and win back all of the territory from the Europeans.
Crusades exposed Europeans to new knowledge, weakened
feudalism and caused a lot of bitterness between Christian
Western Europe and the Islamic world.
The arch and use of flying buttresses created the Gothic style
of architecture which led to vast cathedrals throughout Europe
Universities begin to open around Europe in the Middle Ages.
Increasing access to education spreading new ideas.
A new way of thinking called scholasticism tried to combine
faith and reason.
Thomas Aquinas, an Italian Dominican friar, became
scholasticism’s greatest thinker. Tried to find agreement
between Aristotle’s teachings and Christian teachings.
Wrote on religion and government including the idea that
people have certain basic rights.
Catholic church becomes rich and powerful and some are
concerned about its direction.
Cistercian monks were unhappy with the wealthy monasteries and
wanted to live a simpler life. They worshipped, prayed and farmed
the land.
Friars left the monasteries and took Christianity to the people.
Two orders of friars were Franciscans and Dominicans. They lived
a life of poverty and defending the teachings of the church.
Church affected nearly every part of people’s lives. People attend
mass, and take part in sacraments.
To deal with heresy the church set up a court called the Inquisition.
Anti-Semitism is common throughout the middle ages.
Plague originates in Asia and is spread by Mongol trade
routes from Asia to the Middle East and to Europe.
Plague originates with bacteria in fleas, fleas are carried
by rats and fleas infect humans.
Nearly half of the people in China and Europe die from
Some blame God’s punishment and others blame the
Plague destroys the economy and weakens feudalism.
Makes people start to think differently about the church.
Conflict - Religious and Military
The Great Schism divides the church with multiple people claiming
to be pope at once. Reformers and kings questions popes
Hundred Years’ War fought between England and France. English
king claims French crown and invades France.
Early victories for English at Crecy and Agincourt using the
A 17 year old French peasant girl named Joan helps the French
prince Charles gain back land from the English and Charles is
crowned king. Joan is later charged with heresy and executed.
English nobles bitter about defeat fight a civil war called the War of
the Roses and the Tudors claim victory with Henry VII being
crowned king.
Muslims are driven out of Spain and Inquisition pushes Jews out of
Spain as well.